- Common Terminology and Definitions
- Use of the Incident Management System (IMS)
- Incident Management Guidelines
- Fire Radio Communications
- Standard Hose Lays
- Helmet Color Coding used to designate firefighters
- Scene Security
- Operation of Apparatus and Vehicles
- Operation of Personally Owned Vehicles
- Tactical Guidelines
- Roadway Incidents
- Bee Incidents
- Hostile Operations
- Helicopter Landing Zones
- Building and Vehicle Lockout
- Vehicle Rescue and Extrication
- Power Lines and Energized Electrical Equipment
- Two In – Two Out
- Rescue of Missing, Lost, or Trapped Firefighters
- Hazardous Materials
- Medical Operations
- PPE Use, Care, and Maintenance
- Social Media Policy
Common Terminology and Definitions
- Affected area(s)-Specific region(s) determined by the Incident Commander where danger is imminent.
- Alert tone-radio transmitted tone used to give an alarm to department radios issued to members.
- Alpha side (aka Side Alpha or just “A”) – front side of a building.
- AAR – after-action review (or after-action report)
- Automatic aid – assistance that is dispatched automatically by predetermined agreement among agencies.
- Available: Designation that an apparatus or company is available for calls or assignment.
- Available on the radio–used when a company is in service and away from the station.
- Bravo side (aka Side Bravo or just “B”) – left side of the building
- CAGE Code – stands for Commercial And Government Entity Code and is a five-digit number assigned to companies who want to compete for federal government contract awards
- Clear –used when a company has finished a task or assignment and is ready for reassignment (released from scene).
- Charlie side (aka Side Charlie or just “C”) – back side of a building
- Command –Incident Commander
- Delta side (aka Side Delta or just “D”) – right side of a building
- DUNS number The Dun & Bradstreet D‑U‑N‑S Number is a unique nine-digit identifier for businesses
- Emergency Traffic –used to gain top priority on the radio and to restrict all non-emergency communications.
- EMS – emergency medical services
- Enroute –used when in service and on the way.
- ETA –estimated time of arrival.
- Evacuation –the removal of all occupants from a life-threatening situation. There are three levels of evacuation:
- Warning –a notification that a hazardous condition exists that may endanger the lives of occupants.
- Evacuation –the mandatory removal of persons due to an immediate threat to lives. Example: fires in progress, hazardous materials leak or spills, etc.
- Emergency Withdrawal –a notification for all emergency personnel to immediately withdraw from the affected site. This is accomplished by three, two second simultaneous blast on the air horn and radio contact. Emergency withdrawal requires that a PAR be conducted.
- Extrication – removing patients from a vehicle crash
- FEMA – Federal Emergency Management Agency
- Fire Under Control: The progress of the fire has been stopped and controlled; however, fire has not yet been extinguished
- Halligan – a vital fire ground tool used in extrication
- Hot Zone: The designated area around an incident in which all personnel are required to be in protective clothing suitable for the type of incident.
- Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) –an atmosphere that poses an immediate threat to life would cause irreversible, adverse health effects or would impair an individual’s ability to escape from a dangerous atmosphere.
- Imminent Life-Threatening Situation –a situation in which immediate action is required to prevent the loss of life or serious injury.
- IC – incident commander or incident command
- ICS – incident command system
- Incipient Stage Fire –a fire which is in the initial or beginning stage and which can be controlled or extinguished by portable fire extinguisher, class II standpipes, or small hose system without the need for protective clothes or breathing apparatus.
- IRIT –initial rapid intervention team-a two-member stand-by team outside the IDLH atmosphere (required 2 in/2 out rule) assigned to monitor the status of the crew inside the IDLH atmosphere.
- Laying a Line: Arriving apparatus is laying a supply line to the scene or to the apparatus attacking the fire.
- LDH (Large Diameter Hose): Supply hose used to provide a constant water supply to the attack engines.
- Mayday –used when a firefighter is missing, lost, or trapped on an emergency scene.
- Mutual Aid – an agreement among emergency responders to lend assistance across jurisdictional boundaries and is usually dispersed when requested
- Mop-up: (Overhaul) The process of ensuring that all hot spots have been extinguished
- Negative – Used to indicate a negative response
- NFPA – National Fire Protection Association
- NIMS – National Incident Management System
- On-Scene: Designation that a company has arrived On-scene
- Out Of Service: Designation that an apparatus or company, although clear of an incident, is not available for assignment or calls.
- PAR –a Personnel Accountability Report is a roll call of all crew members after certain benchmarks to ensure all members working on the fire ground are accounted for.
- PAT -Personnel Accountability Tag
- Primary Search –the initial rapid examination of the affected areas, where possible, to attempt to ensure all occupants are removed and/or safe. Radio transmission at end of primary search will be “primary search is complete (with location searched)”
- Quick Attack –an attack in which is initiated on a fire still in its incipient stage and IRIT is not established prior to fire attack. It the fire is not controlled within the first 4 minutes and additional crews have not arrived the crew will back out.
- RIT –Rapid Intervention Team that is fully equipped, on site, and in a ready state to imediately react and respond to rescue injured or trapped firefighters.
- REDLINE This is a red, 1-inch diameter hoseline that puts out 60 GPM. Used on car fires, trash fires and grass/wildland fires. It’s on a reel so it is deployed and put away very quickly
- Received – Used to indicate a message on the radio has been received and understood
- Rescue –the removal of persons deemed incapable of extricating themselves from imminent danger in affected.
- Responder Board –a plastic board mounted in each apparatus to hold PATs.
- Responding: Term used to indicate that a company is making an emergency response to an incident or designated location.
- Sam.Gov – The System for Award Management (SAM.gov) is an official website of the U.S. Government used to do business with the U.S. Government. Necessary for Grants.
- SAR – search and rescue
- SCBA – self-contained breathing apparatus
- SOP/SOG – standard operating procedures/standard operating guidelines
- Secondary Search: Search of the building or residence for fire victims, conducted after the fire has been extinguished.
- Size-up: The process of making a detailed description of the incident scene. (Verbalized on the radio by the 1st arriving company).
- TIC – thermal imaging camera
- TIN Number A Taxpayer Identification Number is an identification number used by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) in the administration of tax laws. It is issued either by the Social Security Administration (SSA) or by the IRS
- Wet Line: The application of water and class-A foam to the fuel (grass) ahead of an advancing brush fire. This is usually performed at a roadway or other natural or man-made barrier.
- WUI – wildland-urban interface.
Use of the Incident Management System (IMS)
PURPOSE: The purpose of the Incident Management System (IMS) is to provide structure and coordination for the management of emergency incident operations, to provide for the safety and health of fire service personnel arid other persons involved in the incident.
SCOPE: The Incident Management System will be utilized at all emergency incidents. The Incident Management System also shall be applied to drills, exercises and other situations that involve hazards like those encountered at actual emergency incidents and to simulated incidents that are conducted for training and familiarization purposes.
This SOG will serve to comply with Texas Commission on Fire Protection Standard 435.11.
TRAINING All personnel involved in emergency operations shall be trained in the incident management system. Personnel who are expected to perform as incident commanders or to be assigned to supervisory levels within the command structure shall be trained in and familiar with the incident management system and the levels at which they are expected to perform.
SYSTEM STRUCTURE The Incident Management System is modular to allow the application of only those elements that are necessary at a particular incident to be activated or deactivated as the needs of the incident change in time. The system provides for a routine process of escalation as additional resources are utilized. The IMS is built from the first arriving units up, as needed. The command structure for each incident shall maintain an accepted supervisory span of control at each level of the organization. This is normally three (3) to seven (7) personnel, with five (5) being the preferred number.
The Incident Commander shall have the authority to modify standard assignments or to apply them in a manner that suits the needs of an incident. It shall be the responsibility of the Incident Commander to clearly identify the parameters of an assignment when deviating from the standard assignments. The Incident Commander must determine if initial command activity will be conducted from a fixed position, or if it will be conducted simultaneously with the tactical operations of the first arriving units. Command from a fixed position is preferred, particularly when an incident is complex or rapidly escalating.
PERSONNEL AND RESOURCE ACCOUNTABILITY Personnel and resource accountability will be conducted according to SB-VFD SOG Personnel Accountability.
Personnel rehabilitation will be conducted according to SB-VFD SOG Firefighter Rehabilitation.
Clear text will be used for communications; no 10 codes, signals, etc. are to be used.
The term “Emergency Traffic” will be transmitted when an emergency condition exists at an incident, other than a lost or trapped firefighter, to clear radio traffic from the channel. Once “Emergency Traffic” has been declared, all radio traffic will cease immediately. This would include, but is not limited to, the following:
- Officer needs assistance
- Evacuate the building/area
- Change from offensive to defensive
- Imminent building collapse
- Change in wind direction
Emergency Traffic can be declared by the Incident Commander, division supervisor, or
Once the emergency traffic has been transmitted, the person who declared the emergency
traffic message shall conclude it by transmitting “Resume Radio Traffic”.
In addition to emergency traffic being transmitted, three (3) short blasts on the air-horns of the apparatus will be sounded to alert personnel to evacuate the building and/or area immediately.
The term “May-Day” will be transmitted by a lost or trapped firefighter to report their need for assistance. A “May-Day” may be transmitted by any member to report a lost firefighter. The term “May-Day” will be used to report a trapped or missing firefighter ONLY. The term “Emergency Traffic” will be used to report other emergencies.
SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND RESPONSIBJLITIES The Incident Management System organizational structure develops in a modular fashion based upon the type and size of the incident. The System’s staff builds from the top down with responsibility and performance placed initially with the Incident Commander. As the need exists, separate divisions can be developed, each with several units that may be established. If one individual can simultaneously manage all major functional areas, no further organization is required. If one or more of the areas requires independent management, an individual is named to be responsible for that area. Listed below are the major components of the Incident Management System:
INCIDENT COMMANDER-An Incident Commander will be established at every incident and shall be responsible for the overall coordination and direction of all activities at an incident. This responsibility shall include the safety and health of all fire department personnel and other persons operating within the Incident Management System. There shall be only one (1) Incident Commander at an incident. However, different individuals may serve as the IC as the incident progresses by utilizing the Transfer of Command procedures outlined in this SOG. An incident utilizing a Unified Command Structure is the exception to the single Incident Commander.
The following risk management principles shall be utilized by the Incident Commander:
- Activities that present a significant risk to the safety of personnel shall be limited to situations where there is a potential to save endangered lives.
- Activities that are routinely employed to protect property shall be recognized as inherent risks to the safety of personnel, and actions shall be taken to reduce or avoid these risks.
- No risk to the safety of personnel shall be acceptable where there is no possibility to save lives or property.
Incident Commander is responsible for the following:
- Establishing a command structure that meets the needs of the incident.
- Determining the overall strategy that will be employed.
- Requesting and assigning adequate resources to deal with the incident.
- Communicating and interpreting progress reports from persons assigned in the command structure.
COMMAND STAFF-Are positions established to assume responsibility for key activities, which are not part of the line organization. These position report directly to the IC. The three (3) main staff positions are listed below:
Public Information Officer (PIO)-Responsible for interface with the media or other appropriate agencies requiring information direct from the incident scene. The PIO will only release information approved by the IC.
Incident Safety Officer (ISO)-Responsible for monitoring and assessing safety hazards, unsafe conditions, and developing measures for ensuring personnel safety. Has the authority to stop and/or prevent unsafe acts. If the ISO judges’ activities to be unsafe and to involve an imminent hazard, the ISO shall have the authority to alter suspend, or terminate those activities. The ISO shall immediately inform the IC of any actions taken. Where unsafe activities are identified by the ISO that do not present an imminent danger, the ISO will contact the IC to correct the condition.
Liaison Officer-Is the point of contact for assisting and cooperating agencies.
OPERATIONS SECTION-Responsible for the direct management of all incident tactical activities, the tactical priorities, and safety and welfare of the personal working in the Operations Sections.
Operations Section Chief is responsible for:
- Managing the incident tactical activities.
- Coordinating activities with the IC.
- Implementing the incident action plan.
- Assigning resources to tactical level areas based on tactical objectives and priorities.
- Building an effective organizational structure through the use of sectors.
- Providing tactical objectives for each sector.
- Consulting with and informing sector officers and Incident Command Staff as needed.
- Keeping the IC informed of the progress of the incident and suggesting changes in the incident action plan if necessary.
PLANNING SECTION-Responsible for gathering, assimilating, analyzing and processing information needed for effective decision-making. The goal of the planning section is to plan ahead of current events and to identify the need for resources before they are needed.
Planning Section Chief-is responsible for:
- Evaluating current strategy and plan with the IC.
- Maintaining resource status and personnel accountability.
- Refining and recommending any needed changes to plan with Operations Section’s input.
- Evaluating incident organization and span-of-control.
- Forecasting possible outcome of incident.
- Evaluating future resources requirements.
- Utilizing technical assistance as needed.
- Evaluating tactical priorities, critical factors and safety.
- Gathering, updating, improving, and managing situation status with a standard systematic approach.
- Coordinating with any needed outside agencies for planning needs.
- Planning for incident demobilization. Maintaining incident records.
LOGISTICS SECTION-Provides services and support systems to all the organizational components involved in the incident including facilities, transportation, supplies, equipment maintenance, fueling, feeding, communications, and medical services, including firefighter rehab.
Logistics Section Chief-is responsible for:
- Providing medical aid for incident personnel and managing Rehab.
- Coordinating immediate critical incident stress debriefings. Providing and managing any needed supplies or equipment.
- Forecasting and obtaining future resource needs (coordinate with Planning Section).
- Providing communications plan and any needed repairs for equipment.
- Obtaining specialized equipment or expertise per Command. Providing food and associated supplies.
- Securing any needed fixed or portable facilities.
- Providing any other logistical needs as required by Command.
- Supervising assigned personnel.
FINANCE SECTION-Established on incidents when the agency(ies) that are involved have a specific need for financial services. It is rarely established. The function is usually assigned to a person in the Planning Section.
Finance Section Chief-is responsible for:
- Procuring of services and/or supplies from sources within and outside the department as requested by Command (coordinates with Logistics Section)
- Documenting all financial costs of the incident.
- Keeping documentation for possible cost recovery for services and/or supplies.
- Analyzing and managing legal risk for incidents (i.e. HAZ-MAT clean up).
- Keeping documentation for compensation and claims for injury.
STAGING AREA-The location where incident personnel and equipment are assigned on an immediately available status.
Staging Area Manager-is responsible for:
- Reporting directly to the IC until an Operations Officer is appointed.
- Establishing the Staging Area if one has not been established by the IC.
- Notifying the IC or Operations Section Chief the location of the Staging Area.
- Logging all personnel and equipment in and out of the Staging Area.
- Keeping track of available equipment and personnel in the Staging Area.
- Keeping personnel and equipment assigned to Staging together and ready to respond if needed. (Do not let the personnel wander off to see what is going on at the incident).
DIVISION SUPERVISOR/GROUP SUPERVISORS-are at the tactical and task level in the system. They are responsible for specific geographical areas or functions at the tactical level and for supervising specific tasks at the task level.
Division Supervisors/Group Supervisors are responsible for:
- Employing the same risk management principles at their level in the system as those used by the Incident Commander to define the limits of acceptable and unacceptable positions and functions for all personnel at the scene.
- Assuming responsibility for activities within their span of control including responsibility for the safety and health of personnel and other authorized persons within their designated areas.
- Working toward assigned objectives, within the overall strategy defined by the incident commander. They shall report their progress or lack of progress at 15¬minute intervals.
- Being alert to recognize conditions and actions that create a hazard within their span of control. They have the authority and responsibility to take immediate action to correct imminent hazards and to advise the appropriate supervisor regarding these actions.
- Coordinating their activities with other supervisors at the same level and shall provide direction to supervisors at lower level or personnel within their span of control.
- Where conflicting orders are received at any level of the incident management system, the individual receiving the conflicting order shall inform the individual giving the order that a conflict exists. If the conflicting order is required to be carried out, the individual giving the conflicting order shall so inform the individual who provided the initial order. NOTE: The requirement for clarifying conflicting orders does not apply to imminent hazard situations where immediate action is necessary to avoid a dangerous situation.
- Maintaining a constant awareness of the position and function of all personnel assigned to operate under their supervision. This awareness shall serve as the basic means of accountability that shall be required for operational safety.
SECTION VII. ESTABLISHING COMMAND
The shift commander or first arriving unit on scene will establish and name Command and will remain in Command until a more qualified or higher-ranking member arrives on scene and assumes Command. Command should operate from inside the command vehicle if possible. If Command must leave the vehicle as part of the initial attack, he will return to the vehicle as soon as possible.
On single department responses the incident talk group will be SB-VFD Tactical/Private talk group. On a multi-department response, the incident talk group will be the specific talk group established by Llano SO Dispatch. (Example: if Sunrise Beach has an incident that requires only their department to respond, then the active incident talk group will be the SB-VFD Tactical/Private talk group. If SB-VFD is going to a call to assist Kingsland VFD on a mutual aid alarm, the active incident talk group will be assigned by Llano SO Dispatch as Llano Ops 1, for instance.)
The IC will give a size-up on the Incident Talk Group. The size-up should include the following:
- Description of the incident (i.e. type and size of structure, fuel type for Wildland fire, # of acres on fire, 2 car MVC, etc.).
- Obvious conditions (where fire and/or smoke is showing, exposures, vehicle upside down, # of patients, etc.).
- Actions being taken (offensive, defensive, investigation, etc.)
- Instructions for other arriving units.
Command Options-Structure Fires
When Command is initially established, that person, if a Company Officer, must decide on an appropriate involvement in tactical activities and mode of Command to be utilized. The options for Command are as follows:
Nothing Showing Mode-These situations generally require investigation by the initial arriving company while other units are staged. The Officer should go with the company to investigate while utilizing a portable radio to Command the incident.
Fast Attack Mode-Situations that require immediate action to stabilize and require the Officer’s assistance and direct involvement in the attack. In these situations, the Officer goes with the crew to provide the appropriate level of supervision. Examples of these situations include:
- Interior fires in a residence, apartment, or small commercial occupancies.
- Critical life safety situations (i.e., rescue) that must be achieved in a compressed time.
- Any incident where the safety and welfare of firefighters is a major concern.
- Obvious working incidents that require further investigation by the Officer.
The use of a portable radio will allow the Officer’s involvement in the attack without neglecting Command responsibilities. The Fast Attack Mode should not last more than a few minutes and will end with one of the following:
- The situation is stabilized.
- The situation is not stabilized, and the Officer must withdraw and assume an exterior Command position.
- Command is transferred to another Officer.
Command Mode-Certain incidents, by virtue of their size, complexity, or potential for rapid expansion, require immediate strong, direct, overall Command. In such case, the Officer will initially assume an exterior, safe, and effective Command position.
In certain situations, it may be advantageous for the first arriving Officer to “Pass Command” to the next arriving Officer. This is indicated when the initial commitment of the first arriving company requires full crew effort, and the next arriving officer is on scene or close to being on scene. Command may only be passed once on any scene and only by the first arriving Officer to the next arriving Officer.
Transfer of Command
The arrival of a higher-ranking officer, in itself does not mean Command has been transferred. The higher-ranking officer may elect not to take Command and may serve as an advisor to the person in Command.
Transfer of Command will be accomplished by the following:
- The person transferring Command will communicate with the person accepting Command by a face-to-face meeting.
- If a face-to-face meeting is not possible, then the exchange will take place via the radio.
The person being relieved will brief the person accepting Command on the following:
- Incident conditions.
- Incident action plan.
- Progress toward completion of the tactical objectives.
- Safety considerations.
- Deployment and assignments of operating companies.
- Appraisal of needs for additional resources.
A Unified Command Structure will be implemented any time the incident involves other departments or agencies with management responsibilities for the incident.
The Unified Command Structure will:
Consist of representatives, with decision-making authority, of each agency or department with management responsibilities for the incident.
Jointly determine objectives, strategy, and priorities for the incident
Appoint an Operations Section Chief that will have the responsibility for implementation of the plan.
Establishing a Command Post
A Command Post will be:
Established depending on the size, type and complexity of the incident.
Set up in a safe and highly visible location with a view of two (2) sides of the incident, if possible.
The location will be transmitted on the radio.
SECTION VIII. DIVIDING THE INCIDENT Structure Fires
The following will apply when dividing an incident involving a structure:
The front, or address side, will generally be designated “A” Division.
The remaining sides will be designated “B”, “C”, and “D” sides in a clockwise manner.
When operating in a multi-story occupancy the building will be additionally, divided using the floors and their numbers.
The following will apply when dividing an incident involving Wildland fire:
The origin of the fire will be the rear of the fire.
The left flank and right flank of the fire will be referred to as if the person were standing at the rear and looking towards the head fire.
The head is area with the greatest rate of forward spread.
The flanks and head may need to be further divided into divisions, depending on the size of the fire.
• On large incidents or at the request of the IC an ICS Form 214 may need to be completed. This is a log of activities that everyone performed while on an incident.
Incident Management Guidelines
Tactical Priorities identify the three separate tactical objectives that must be addressed at every incident. These priorities also establish the order in which the objectives must be addressed.
While Command must satisfy each objective in its priority order, he/she must, in many cases, overlap and “mix” the activities of each to achieve the desired benchmark.
These functions are separate, yet inter-related activities, which must be dealt with in order.
The tactical priorities are as follows:
LIFE SAFETY -The activities required to protect occupants and emergency personnel, remove those who are threatened, and to treat the injured.
INCIDENT STABILIZATION -The activities required for stopping the momentum of the incident and concluding the incident.
PROPERTY CONSERVATION -The activities required to stop or reduce additional loss of property.
INCIDENT MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES
A size-up is intended to provide information to other units responding to the incident.
The shift commander or first unit to arrive will give an initial size-up. The initial size-up includes, but is not limited to:
- Unit on the scene with address
- A description of the occupancy
- A description of the incident
- Action the company is taking
- Any other vital information
- Establish Command
- On Motor Vehicle Collisions status of occupants, and/or HAZMAT
The secondary size-up is more comprehensive and is given on all major incidents. This size-up is given after additional information is gained. Secondary size-up information should include:
- Size and condition of the incident (escalating or stabilized)
- Major functions accomplished or being accomplished (I.e., ventilation, evacuation, primary search, secondary search, status of water supply, status of RIT)
- On long-term incident, size-ups should be given periodically to update the situation. This will assist in the recall of personnel, mutual aid, etc.
EVACUATION, SEARCH and RESCUE
OCCUPANT REMOVAL LEVELS
- WARNING: A notification that a hazardous exists that may endanger the lives of occupants.
- EVACUATION: The mandatory removal of civilians due to an immediate threat to lives, i.e., fires in progress, hazardous materials leaks or spills, etc.
- EMERGENCY WITHDRAWAL: A notification for all emergency personnel to immediately withdraw from the affected site. This is accomplished by THREE, TWO-SECOND BLAST ON THE AIR HORN and/or RADIO CONTACT. Emergency Withdrawal requires that a PAR be conducted.
Once an evacuation becomes necessary, the Incident Commander has the responsibility to determine the level of evacuation and the methods used.
Several methods may be used including primary search, secondary search, use of intercoms, loudspeakers, or any other method of alerting occupants to vacate the premises.
Incident Commanders should consider instituting security measures to ensure that once occupants have been evacuated from the area, they will not be allowed to return. Use of police officers may be necessary.
The Incident Commander should consider the need for medical triage, treatment, and transport functions; establishment of evacuation centers with transportation and needed caregivers; a media information post; and others as the situation demands.
The purpose of searches (primary and secondary) is to provide for the safety of occupants who may be exposed to dangers.
A search does not imply that occupants must be evacuated. If occupants are considered safe from the dangers of the incident, the decision may be to allow occupants to remain (Sheltering in place, should not be utilized at structure fires unless a very large building such as a school with fire walls or fire doors separating the structure.
Command will determine the extent to which evacuation is conducted.
Personnel shall conduct a primary search in all affected areas that are safe to be entered by fire personnel. Depending on the extent of the hazard, consideration shall be given to conducting a primary search in all potentially affected areas. At the discretion of Command, a secondary search should be conducted, depending upon existing conditions. The areas to be searched on both primary and secondary searches shall be designated by Command.
Time is a critical factor in all search operations. A primary search must be done quickly during the initial stages of the operation. However, in some incidents where occupants are exposed to immediate and imminent danger such as a working fire (beyond incipient stage, producing IDLH conditions), occupants must be quickly evacuated, and the primary search delayed accomplishing the evacuation effort. It is the responsibility of the officer in command to determine the appropriate actions of either establishing a RIT prior to entry or, in the event of an imminent life-threatening situation, enter without a RIT. After completing a search or rescue of the occupants, firefighters are to withdraw from the structure until two-in/two-out procedures can be implemented with the arrival of additional personnel. The Incident Commander develops strategy and tactics based upon the completion of the primary search.
Before entering the search area, all search personnel should be familiar with a specific search plan, including the overall objective, a defined search area, and individual assignments of team members.
Search activities shall be conducted by teams of two or more personnel. Company Officers must maintain an awareness of the location and function of all members within their unit during search operations.
Large and complex occupancies require careful planning to ensure the safe completion of a primary search.
The Incident Commander shall track the status of all companies assigned to search operations.
Command shall report the completion of the primary search to Dispatch using the standard statement, “primary search complete on the area(s) designated to be searched.”
On completion of a secondary search, Command shall report completion of the secondary search using the statement, “secondary search complete on the designated areas searched”. The areas searched on both primary and secondary searches shall be documented by Command and included in the incident report.
During search operations, victims may be located and rescued by fire personnel. After victims have been removed, they should be triaged; treatment of the injured will be a high priority. Additional resources may be required to provide treatment to the victims as well as to complete the primary search. Command shall be notified if the areas designated to be searched are not completed due to victim removal. Command may then assign additional resources to complete the search.
Command must consider the timely response of adequate resources for removal and treatment of the victims and to stabilize the incident.
Several factors influence the development of a rescue plan. Some of these are:
- Evaluate the factors to determine when the first company on the scene should wait outside the structure until the establishment of RIT upon the arrival of the second unit versus the factors that indicate the need to make immediate entry without RIT for rescue of a citizen in a life-threatening situation.
- Determine if it is more appropriate to remove the victims from the occupancy or to abate the hazard and leave victims in their locations.
- The number, location, and condition of the victims.
- The effect of the incident upon the victims and the rescuers.
- The capability of rescue forces to enter the occupancy and control the incident.
- Rescue priorities, which are as follows:
A. Most severely threatened.
B. Largest number of people.
C. Areas involved in the incident.
D. Exposed areas
The decisions required to provide for adequate resources are an important factor in effective fire forecasting. The Incident Commander must balance the tactical problems with the resources required to control those problems and stay ahead of the situation. Beware of “crisis management.”
Many times, Command will reach a point where they begin to debate whether to call another alarm or not; in such cases, call for it. If the extra resource is not needed, it can easily be cancelled.
It is the continuing responsibility and function of Command to determine the resources required to control the situation, and to provide for the timely call for any additional resources required. Command must be aware of both the capability and response time of additional resources, and effectively integrate these facts into calls for additional resources.
Some tactical situations move slowly, while some move very quickly. Command must call for additional resources at a rate that stays ahead of the fire. Some situations require the categorical call for additional alarms based upon knowledge of characteristics or conditions. In other situations, Command will initiate some fire control activities, ask for reports, and based upon receipt of conditions, or situational needs, will request additional alarms.
As Command calls for additional resources, he/she must build a corresponding command structure to manage those resources. Command cannot encounter a big fire situation, call additional alarms, and then expect to effectively manage those resources in a single alarm command mode.
Additional resources should be called in any of the following situations:
1. An actual or potential fire situation and the life hazard, exceed the rescue capabilities of initial alarm companies.
2.The number, location, and condition of victims exceed the rescue, removal, or treatment capabilities of companies.
3. An actual or potential fire situation exists, and the property protection demands (both internal and external) exceed the fire control capabilities of initial alarm companies.
4. Fire conditions become more severe or the situation deteriorates significantly.
5. All companies have been committed and the fire is not controlled.
5. Forces are depleted due to exhaustion or injury or are trapped or missing (such as when a mayday is declared). Command must forecast the effect that the fire will have on personnel and provide for the support of such personnel in advance.
6. Command runs out of some resources (personnel, apparatus, water, equipment, command, etc.).
7. There is evidence of significant fire, but companies are unable to determine location and extent.
8. The commitment of companies is not effective.
9. Companies cannot effectively perform early salvage operations.
10. The situation becomes so widespread or complex that Command can no longer effectively “cope”.
11. The situation requires a larger command organization and more division functions.
12. 1Command instinctively feels the need to summon additional resources.
PURPOSE The purpose of this guideline is to improve the firefighter Rehab System so that company integrity, accountability, health, and safety are ensured and to define the desired Rehab System and the specific responsibilities of those individuals vital to its proper function. In an emergency, a balance between maximum utilization of firefighters on the scene and the safety of firefighters is imperative. During operations that require strenuous physical labor for an extended period, such as multiple-alarm fires, provisions for rest and rehab of crews are necessary.
STRESS AND/OR FATIGUE MONITORING
It is the responsibility of the Company Officer to continually monitor the condition of all crew members for signs of stress or fatigue. Company Officers should proactively forecast the need for rehab and provide Command time to assign another company to the tactical position being vacated.
1. Rehab will provide a specific area where personnel will receive:
- Revitalization-rest, rehydration, etc.
- Treatment for injuries
- Monitoring of physical condition
2. This policy is in no way intended to diminish fire attack aggressiveness. The intent is to establish a reasonable procedure to lessen the risk of injury resulting from extended emergency operations under adverse conditions. An effective Rehab approach should allow companies to be replaced in tactical positions and rotated to Rehab. After going through the Rehab process, in most cases, companies can be reassigned to tactical positions.
A Rehab Team may include:
- A designated Rehab Officer which should be DSHS certified personnel when DSHS personnel are available.
- An Advanced Life Support Medic Unit
- A Rehab Vehicle
- Any additional assistance requested by the Rehab Officer
Consideration of establishing Rehab should be under the following emergency conditions:
- Where moderate to long working time is envisioned.
- Where personnel are operating under adverse temperature or weather conditions
- Where moderate to large work force is indicated, or during extremely labor-intensive incidents.
- Any other incident where Command deems it necessary
REHAB SITE LOCATION
Unless a site is designated by Command, the assigned Rehab Officer will survey the area, select a suitable site, and advise Command. The location of the Rehab site will be announced over the radio.
The Rehab site should be located outside of the operational activity area, where breathing apparatus and protective clothing may be removed safely. Considerations should be given to wind direction, hazard zones, noise levels, and fire perimeters. The area chosen should allow access for the Rehab Vehicle, Medic Units or any other equipment that may be needed in the Rehab area, when feasible.
REPORTING TO REHAB
- All members reporting to Rehab should arrive as FULL CREWS to ensure company integrity. These companies will report to the Rehab Officer, where they will be assessed by a member of the Rehab Team and logged in on the Incident Rehab Report.
- Rehab is considered an ICS Division; the accountability system is to be enforced.
- It is the responsibility of the Company Officer to keep the crew together while in Rehab.
- The Rehab Officer is responsible for placing crews back on the list for reassignment as soon as they can actively participate in further operations.
- Entry Point –Rehab will only one entry point. This is where the Rehab Officer will record names and time on the log. SCBA cylinders, will be collected at this point, filled and returned to SCBA brackets. Upon entry, each member will be quickly evaluated for altered mental status. Any member displaying signs of altered mental status will immediately be treated and transported to a medical facility if needed.
- Assessment –Crew members will be given a quick check of pulse rate and B/P. After 10-minutes rest and rehydration, a thorough evaluation will be conducted to determine if medical treatment is needed, or crew members can move into the hydration/ rest phase of Rehab.
Vital signs in rehab are mentioned in NFPA 1584, which states, “Currently, there are no studies that quantify vital sign measurements with the length of rehabilitation or with the need to direct members to a treatment area. Visual signs and symptoms remain the best method to evaluate members in the rehabilitation area. Vital sign measurements can be used as a baseline and can assist to identify other health or safety concerns.”
NFPA 1584 recommends these vital signs for release from the rehab area:
Temperature: <100.6 F
Heart Rate: <100
Respiratory Rate: 12-20
Blood Pressure: <160 systolic and <100 diastolic
Pulse Oximetry: >94 percent
The NFPA vitals serve as a reasonable baseline but should only be seen as a reference. In our department rehab protocols, we will follow NFPA fairly closely. We use our rehab vital sign
measurements for on-scene rehab discharge decisions and as a tool to screen our firefighters for
undiagnosed hypertension. Understanding that the fireground is stressful, we do not implement any medical treatment for hypertension, but we do have criteria for the firefighter to have a primary care follow-up appointment and hypertension recheck. When in doubt and the firefighter appears to be suffering from a heat-related injury we will error on the side of caution and not allow that firefighter to re-enter the fire scene.
The following criteria will be used when deciding a crew member should receive medical treatment:
Blood Pressure Recommended Action
<90 diastolic Discharge from rehab.
90-100 diastolic Discharge from rehab.
Primary care physician follow-up for recheck.
160-180 systolic Removed from active scene work. Light duty until cleared by primary care physician.
>120 diastolic Transport to emergency department.
Temperature < 100.6 F Remove from active scene work
Treatment –This phase will consist of close monitoring for pulse, B/P, and body temperature changes every 10-minutes. After the initial 20-minute period, the crew member will be evaluated to determine if transportation to a medical facility is warranted, or another 20-minute assessment/treatment phase shall be assessed.
- Hydration/Rest –This area is for crew members who need no medical treatment. All personnel in this area will be provided a source of cooling/warming (depending on the weather), fluids, and nourishment (if available). After 10-minutes of rest in this area, the company will be reassessed before being given another assignment. Any crew member that exhibits signs of severe exhaustion and/or clinical signs of heat exhaustion or heat stroke will be moved to the treatment area for treatment and evaluated for transport.
- Reassignment –This area is for members ready for reassignment for duty. Crews should make sure their PPE is ready for use and report their availability to the Rehab Officer. At this point the Rehab Officer may join incomplete crews to form a crew. The Rehab Officer must relay this information to Command.
RESOURCES The Rehab Officer will maintain adequate resources to manage Rehab responsibilities. Command will establish resource parameters, and requests for additional resources will be coordinated through Command.
Fire Radio Communications
The purpose of this guideline is to clarify the acceptable radio usage and the guidelines for radio communication for the Sunrise Beach Volunteer Fire Department
Expect to be dispatched on the Primary Talk Group LL FDEM (Talk Group 1) Llano County Dispatch.
Dispatch will designate over the radio which talk group will be the primary channel of communication. For mutual aid/multi-department dispatch the primary department will be determined by the fire district that the incident is located in. (example: a structure fire is in Kingsland, then the Kingsland VFD will be the primary department and it will be assumed that they will assume incident command duties.
Checking Enroute and Responding
The shift commander on duty for the SB-VFD will advise dispatch that the department received the page and are responding.
On a single department response, the incident talk group will be the SB-VFD Tactical (Private) talk group.
All communications related to the incident will take place on the incident talk group, The shift commander will assume incident command duties and manage all communications with Llano Dispatch. All units departing the station will report that they are responding and notify the station of the last names of those on board. If dispatch has more information to relay, they will relay it on the FDEMS talk group. All units will SCAN and monitor both talk groups.
Arriving On Scene
EVERY INCIDENT WILL HAVE AN INCIDENT COMMANDER ESTABLISHED. The shift commander upon arriving on scene will give a size up and establish the incident commander role. (Example: Beach Command is on scene. We have a one-story brick structure with fire showing from the Bravo Charlie side. This will be XYZ command.) Command can be transferred to another incoming unit or officer if needed.
All apparatus arriving on scene will call command for an assignment. Units do not need to just arrive on scene and begin freelancing. The goal is to work under a command structure that helps with the controlled mitigation of an incident.
On Scene Operations
For the duration of the incident crews will remain on the Incident Talk Group (SB-VFD Tactical/Private) unless instructed to do otherwise.
The Incident Commander will handle the flow of information to and from dispatch.
Dispatch will monitor the Incident Talk Group on all structure fire incidents. All radio traffic from command to dispatch and dispatch to command will take place on the incident talk group. The reason for this is that it allows command as well as dispatch to maintain situational awareness for the incident.
On all other incidents, command will contact dispatch on the VFD Dispatch talk group. If Dispatch needs to contact command on any incident, dispatch will call command on the incident talk group that is being used for that incident. Only the Incident Commander is to talk to dispatch except for emergency traffic.
Terminating the Incident
Once the call is complete the Incident Commander will terminate command with dispatch on the VFD Dispatch talk group.
All other units may clear with Dispatch on the VFD Dispatch group and resume normal radio monitoring.
Multiple Calls in the Same Fire District
In the event a major incident is going on and a second incident is dispatched in the same fire district, the Incident Commander may request an operations channel from dispatch to be used for the new incident.
Interoperability Radio channels
All Fire Units shall know how to locate and operate on the interopability channels discussed below.
Interop radio channels can be used in Zone 3 on most Llano County Radios. Interop is used when outside agencies are helping Llano County during a major fire or some other disaster. It can also be used if the 800-trunking system goes down.
There are many different channels in the Texas Interop System but the most frequently used are as follows:
8 call 90; 8 tac 92; Vcall10; Vtac36 Vfire21 Vfire23
Vcall10 and 8call 90 are calling channels and are used to contact dispatch by units in the field. It is encouraged for dispatch to monitor these channels at all times, but it is mandatory to monitor them during a major disaster or during a failure of the 800-trunking system.
Vfire21 is the VHF channel used when working with out of county fire units or the Texas Forest Service.
WR-Helo 1 is the digital channel used to land the Careflite or AE49 Helicopter.
NOTE: due to the fact that all Zone 3 interop channels are analog, the sound quality and clarity that we are used to will not be available when using these channels.
Standard Hose Lays
The purpose of this procedure is to provide a standard hose load for SB-VFD.
Hoses loaded on the cross lay section of fire apparatus should be loaded as a Triple Layer load commonly referred to as a Triple Lay. Alternatively, the “Minute-Man Lay” may be used.
Helmet Color Coding used to designate firefighters
To serve as a guideline for uniformed helmet color coding for SB-VFD
Scope This SOP applies to all SB-VFD members
Helmets will be issued to firefighters as part of the PPE. Helmet colors will be used to determine what a firefighter can or cannot do on the fire ground.
Colors in use by SB-VFD are as follows:
Yellow: For non-certified firefighters. These firefighters are not entry capable.
Black: For certified firefighters. These firefighters are entry capable
Red: Captains and Lieutenants
White: Chief Officers
All new firefighters will be issued yellow helmet markers until a verification of a firefighter certification can be obtained.
A certified firefighter may be retained in a yellow helmet if they feel more training is needed before allowing the firefighter to become entry capable.
When responding to any type of emergency that involves possible violence or as advised by Llano SO Dispatch and does not have a secure scene, DO NOT PROCEED TO THE SCENE UNTIL ADVISED BY DISPATCH OR THE APPROPIATE LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCY THAT THE SCENE IS SECURE. STAGE A SAFE DISTANCE AWAY (out of sight of location).
If the scene becomes unsecured, back away as quickly as possible and radio for assistance. If a resident or property owner refuses entry onto property for extinguishment of an illegal control burn do not trespass, contact Llano SO Dispatch to request appropriate law enforcement agency to make scene secure.
If while on scene, the occupant becomes disgruntled or otherwise unstable request the appropriate Law Enforcement Agency and back out of the scene and stage off scene in a safe place (preferably out of sight of the scene). PERSONNEL SAFETY IS THE MOST IMPORTANT ISSUE AND IS THE INCIDENT PRIORITY.
Personnel should be aware of surroundings on all scenes; be aware of all people and animals on scene.
Personnel shall keep apparatus floors free of slippery substances and obstructions. Water, oil, hydraulic fluid, etc., should be mopped up when accumulations appear. Station floors must be free of slippery substances. Traffic route area, hallways, stairs, etc., shall be clear of unnecessary obstacles and obstructions. Personnel shall wear boots or non-skid shoes while performing floor maintenance.
If operating mowers or trimmers, personnel shall ensure that the blade guards on power trimmers are serviceable and in the proper positions for the intended use before operating.
ANSI Z87 eyewear will be available at all stations. Personnel shall wear glasses when operating or working near mowers, edgers, and other power equipment. Hearing protection shall be worn in any environment where the noise level is above 85 decibels (example: using or testing power equipment or riding in apparatus). Hearing protection includes headsets, ear protectors, or earplugs
When trimming or pruning trees and brush, gloves may be needed to provide hand protection. If gloves are needed, personnel will wear them.
Personnel shall not use defective equipment (ladders with broken rungs, power equipment without proper safety protection, etc.). Such equipment shall be repaired or replaced.
When operating or working near power equipment (drills, sanders, etc.) personnel shall wear safety goggles. The company officer shall provide appropriate training before personnel operate power equipment.
AIR CYLINDER MAINTENANCE
Personnel shall wear ANZI Z87 eyewear when filling or checking air bottles. Personnel shall stand to one side while filling bottles or operating valves to reduce the risk of injury in the event of equipment failure. Use of the blast cabinet part of the cascade system for filling bottles is mandatory.
Use the following techniques when lifting moderate to heavy object:
1 Use the legs to lift; bend from knees, not waist.
2 Keep the back straight.
3 Do not twist the body while lifting.
4 To lift heavy objects, get as close to the object as possible. If the object is too heavy to lift comfortable, ask for help.
Ideally, heavy objects should be stored a waist height to avoid unnecessary lifting.
Operation of Apparatus and Vehicles
All members shall operate vehicles used for Department business in a careful and prudent manner and obey the laws, policies, regulations, and procedures of the state and city.
Operating fire apparatus, especially in emergencies, poses unique hazards and increases the potential for accidents. Consequently, the driver must use extreme caution, alertness, and prudent speed for the conditions encountered to react to the unexpected.
N.F.P.A. 1500, Chapter 4 submits the following recommendations for vehicle/apparatus operators:
1. Drivers of fire department vehicles shall be directly responsible for safe and prudent operations under all conditions.
2. Drivers shall not move vehicles until all persons on the vehicle are seated and secured with seat belts or safety harnesses in approved riding positions.
3. All persons riding on fire apparatus shall be seated and secured to the vehicle by seat belts at any time the vehicle is in motion. Riding on tail steps or in any other exposed positions shall be specifically prohibited. Standing while riding shall be specifically prohibited (exception: When fighting a grassfire and using the “catwalk” on Brush One when terrain and surrounding conditions are advisable to allow use of the “catwalk”).
All operators of Fire Department vehicles will follow these NFPA recommendations. All operators of Fire Department vehicles will refer to Texas Transportation code chapter 546 for state regulations. The use of sirens is not required when there is no need or potential benefit (Transportation Code 546.003); such as late at night when there is no traffic.
Road conditions, weather, or the actions of another does not relieve the driver of the apparatus of his/her responsibility to drive safely.
AGGRESSIVE DRIVING AND EXCESSIVE SPEED WILL NOT BE TOLERATED.
Minimum requirements to drive and operate SB-VFD apparatus are:
1. Current Texas Driver License suitable for the apparatus you are driving
a. MUST have CLASS B EXEMPT (or higher) to drive Engines, Tanker, or any vehicle with 26,000 lb GVWR or greater.
b. CLASS B EXEMPT License is preferred; however, A CLASS C license is suitable for Brush/Attack and Support Apparatus. However, a CLASS B EXEMPT driver’s license shall be obtained within six months of becoming affiliated with SB-VFD.
1 Must be complete a skills assessment administered by the Training Officer, or a Chief Officer. For volunteers a VFD officer may complete the skills assessment.
2 Attend an Emergency Driver Training Class.
Skills assessment will consist of:
1 Completion of Class B Driver’s License Driving Test
2 Driving forward/backward through narrow spaces
3 Utilizing proper backing procedures
4 Hydrant/sprinkler connection spotting
5 Backing and pulling into the various fire station apparatus parking bays
6 Demonstrating and describing angles of approach
7 Crossing curbs, ditches, etc… (Brush and Attack trucks ONLY)
8 Placing the apparatus into PUMP mode and successfully operating an attack line
9 Exhibit a thorough knowledge of all SB-VFD SOG’s and policies that pertain to driving and operating an apparatus.
10 Demonstrate proficiency in conducting a thorough “truck check”
11 Identify/demonstrate the proper use and care of the small motor equipment carried on apparatus:
Hydraulic Rescue tool
No one may drive any fire department vehicle under EMERGENCY CONDITIONS until successful completion of the 3 objectives listed above. Vehicles will be permitted for driving in non-emergency conditions for orientation and training when accompanied by an appropriate credentialed driver upon the approval or direction of a lieutenant in rank or above.
Seatbelts or safety harness always fastened when vehicle is in motion. The Apparatus Operator shall not begin to move vehicle until all passengers are seated and properly secured. All passengers shall remain seated and secured if the vehicle is in motion. Seatbelts shall not be loosened or released while enroute to dress or don equipment. Personnel shall not attempt to mount or dismount from a moving vehicle under any circumstance.
Under wet, foggy, or other hazardous weather or road conditions, drivers should react to the conditions encountered, and in no case exceed posted speed limit. Apparatus Operators should also turn off auxiliary braking devices (Jake brakes on Detroit engines and CAT exhaust brake on CAT engines, output retarder) when road conditions are slick from rain, snow, or ice.
EMERGENCY vs. NON-EMERGENCY RESPONSE
Fire Department vehicle operations are classified either “emergency” or “non-emergency”. During “non-emergency” operations fire department vehicles shall comply with all the traffic laws and rules that apply to all other vehicles. The specific exceptions to traffic laws that apply to emergency vehicles shall only be exercised during authorized emergency operations.
Emergency response creates an increased risk to firefighters and to other users of the roadways. The increased risk must be balanced against the potential benefits of faster response in situations where lives and/or property are at risk. Emergency response shall be limited to situations where prompt response is likely to reduce the risk of death, serious injury or disability, or preventable damage to property.
Non-emergency response classifications
• Automatic fire alarm system activation –no human report of smoke or fire (people on site).
• Residential smoke alarm sounding –no indication of smoke or fire (people on site).
• Smoke in area (outside) –no indication of source.
• Smell of gas in area with no obvious leak (outside)
• Hazardous materials release –no indication of person(s) in distress.
• Water leak
• Unknown odor –no symptoms or persons in distress
• Relieve units at the scene of an incident that is under control
• Control burns –under control, supervised or unsupervised
• Lift assist
• MVC –no indication of injuries or road blockage
• Staging for an EMS call
The officer-in-charge of a company or apparatus that is enroute to an incident is authorized to change the response classification, based on reliable information that the change is appropriate.
When multiple units are responding in emergency mode, the officer arriving at the scene and assuming command of the incident shall determine if it is appropriate to downgrade the response of any units that are still enroute. The additional units shall be directed to continue “at reduced speed” or non-emergency when the situation does not urgently require their presence at the scene.
Emergency Response Classifications
Smoke or fire in a building
Automatic fire alarm system activation –no representative on site
Carbon monoxide alarm
Grass or brush fires
Gas leak inside a building
Hazardous materials release with persons in distress or creating a traffic hazard
Critical medical incident
MVC –with possible or confirmed injuries or road blockage
Vehicle fire Dumpster fire
Electrical wires arcing
During emergency driving response, Fire Department vehicles may exceed the posted speed limit, but ALWAYS regulated by existing road and traffic conditions and should not exceed ten miles per hour above the posted speed limit. SCHOOL SPEED ZONES SHALL NOT BE EXCEEDED. Exercise caution while driving through residential areas.
Drivers of Fire Department vehicle shall bring the vehicle to a complete stop to respond to any of the following:
1 Direction from a law enforcement officer
2 Red traffic light (may proceed upon verification all traffic has yielded)
3 Stop signs (may proceed upon verification all traffic has yielded)
4 Negative right-a-way intersections (may proceed upon verification all traffic has yielded)
5 Blind intersections (may proceed upon verification all traffic has yielded)
6 When the driver cannot account for all lanes of traffic in an intersection (may proceed upon verification all traffic has yielded)
7 When other intersection hazards are present
8 When encountering a stopped school bus with flashing warning lights
During emergency response, fire apparatus should avoid passing other emergency apparatus. If unavoidable, the passing arrangement should be conducted through radio communications.
During emergency response or non-emergency travel, the driver of Fire Department vehicle shall come to a complete stop at all unguarded railroad crossings. Drivers shall ensure that it is safe to proceed prior to crossing the tracks. Drivers shall use caution when approaching any guarded grade railroad crossing.
Officers and Apparatus Operators hold joint responsibility to ensure that all personnel are seated and secured to the vehicle by seat belts or safety harnesses at any time the vehicle is in motion. The only exception shall be when it is necessary for someone to serve as a backup person when backing the apparatus.
When backing an apparatus is unavoidable, a member shall be assigned as a backing guide to notify the Apparatus Operator of any potential hazards. If the Apparatus Operator loses visual contact with the backing guide, the Apparatus Operator shall stop the apparatus immediately.
Backing an apparatus will be the joint responsibility of Apparatus Operator and the backing guide. If a guide is not available and the apparatus must be backed, the Apparatus Operator must dismount and walk completely around the apparatus before backing to ensure no obstructions will interfere with vehicle operations.
Crossing medians, except at approved areas, is a violation of the law. Under normal circumstances it should not be attempted. In life-threatening situations, the apparatus may need to cross the median. The officer must ensure that the fire apparatus can cross safely, and with no damage to the vehicle.
OPERATION OF APPARATUS
The following steps shall be observed to help reduce the wear and tear on apparatus:
1 Allow all Diesel engines to idle three to five minutes before engine shutdown (for turbo cool down).
2 Operate the valve handles during weekly apparatus checks and only lubricate with silicone lubrication, not an oil base.
3 Do not allow engine RPM’s to exceed 1000 rpm for more than two minutes during a closed pump test.
4 Do not use the “master” drain valve as a “pressure release valve”. To release pressure on the pump, retard engine rpm’s to idle and open a nozzle to relieve the pressure on the lines. The master drain valve can be used to drain the system to keep it from freezing. The valve should be operated with weekly apparatus checks.
5 If necessary, use the individual drain valves to relieve pressure on the system.
Apparatus Operators shall shut down their apparatus if the temperature is above 90 degrees and apparatus is going to be idling for more than ten minutes. (This is apparatus not in actual use on incident operations.)
The Company Officer shall always ensure the security of the apparatus. The Apparatus Operator is responsible for all equipment assigned to the apparatus. Before clearing an incident, the Apparatus Operator should inventory all equipment assigned to that apparatus. This should include a walk around the apparatus to ensure that all equipment has been retrieved and secured, and that all compartment doors are closed and latched. The Apparatus Operator is responsible for the proper closing and latching of all compartment and doors any time the vehicle is put into motion.
Wheel chocks are carried on all apparatus. Use chocks any time they will improve safety of personnel or apparatus. The Officer and Apparatus Operator shall be responsible for deciding when to use chocks.
All Department vehicular accidents shall be reported immediately to dispatch and to highest ranking officer available. The Department Chief is to be notified as soon as possible.
1. The report should include the following:
• Apparatus ID
• Exact location of incident
• An indication for need for additional medical assistance
• An estimate of the extent and nature of injuries and vehicle damage
• Indication on whether vehicle is drivable
• Indication of need for cover assignment (out of service/dispatch additional units)
2. While at the accident scene:
• Initiate appropriate medical care
• Do not discuss the incident with anyone other than fire and police representatives
• Do not move your vehicle unless it is creating a traffic hazard
• If you must move your vehicle, chalk the position of your tires prior to moving
• Obtain witness names and contact information
• Remain at the scene until police and fire representatives have completed their investigation
3. Request Dispatch to:
• Dispatch any needed medical assistance
• Dispatch law enforcement
• Notify the Department’s Fire Chief and Assistant Chief of the involved department
• Dispatch additional apparatus to assists at scene and/or cover previous call.
All Department vehicle accidents will be investigated. The process will include the following:
1. Driver and crew members will write incident reports immediately after released from scene
2. Fact finding review
• Separate interviews with the driver, all crew members, and accident witnesses
• Notes recorded at each interview
3. Notification of any applicable Fire Department/ESD agency (insurance company, etc.)
4. Department personnel involved in the incident should be isolated from the general public, the other parties involved in the incident, and the media.
5. Members may be placed on administrative leave or directed to take a leave of absence during the initial investigative process.
6. The driver will be required to submit to alcohol and drugs testing.
7. The driver will be suspended from driving department vehicles and use of emergency equipment of POVs during preliminary investigation of incident. After the preliminary investigation is complete, a decision will made to allow or disallow driving by the Department Chief.
The investigating officer should attempt to collect the following:
1. Photographs/video of the incident
2. Police report
3. Name and contact information for all parties involved (including witnesses)
4. Applicable department accident reports/forms.
All personnel shall stay seated, and seat belted until apparatus is at a full stop and the apparatus operator verbally states personnel may dismount apparatus. Seat belts are not to be released and apparatus doors are not to be opened until apparatus is fully stopped and the apparatus operator verbally states personnel may dismount apparatus.
After dismounting from apparatus, personnel shall not walk within 10’ of the front or rear of apparatus while apparatus operator is in the operator’s seat.
After apparatus is parked on an emergency scene, the apparatus shall not be moved unless the operator has walked 360° around apparatus to ensure clearance; if backing a ground guide is needed.
Operation of Personally Owned Vehicles
All members shall operate personally owned vehicles (POVs) in a safe and prudent way while responding to incident or to the fire station.
The use of emergency lights and sirens on POVs is not allowed.
Members may operate POVs as allowed in TEXAS TRANSPORTATION CODE CHAPTER 546. While responding for an emergency call shall be ALWAYS regulated by existing road and traffic conditions. At no time will member exceed 10 mph above posted speed limit under any conditions and drive with due regard to the safety of others.
Exercise caution while driving through residential areas.
School zone speed limits SHALL NOT be exceeded.
During emergency driving, members shall bring their POVs to a complete stop to respond to any of the following:
1 Direction from a law enforcement officer.
2 Red traffic lights (may proceed through without full stop with eye contact and all traffic is yielding)
3 Stop signs (may proceed through without full stop with eye contact and all traffic is yielding)
4 Negative right-a-way intersection (an intersection where the lane in which you are traveling does not have the right-a-way)
5 Blind intersections
6 When the driver cannot account for all lanes of traffic in an intersection.
7 When other intersection hazards are present.
8 When encountering a stopped school bus with flashing warning lights.
During emergency response, POVs shall not pass a fire apparatus without notifying the Apparatus Operator by radio.
Members responding to station or scene shall yield to emergency apparatus as all other vehicles are required to do.
EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND SIREN
Members may NOT have emergency lights and sirens on POVs
AGGRESSIVE DRIVING AND EXCESSIVE SPEED WILL NOT BE TOLERATED.
RESPONDING TO SCENE
Members shall respond to the fire station for a Fire Apparatus. If incident is between responder and fire station, and personnel are enroute to station for fire apparatus, the firefighter may respond to scene with approval of Shift Command.
Personnel responding to a medical incident by POV shall park their vehicle in a location at or near the scene in a way that does not block responding Emergency Apparatus. POVs shall not impede the flow of traffic, unless necessary to protect the incident scene. Medical First Responders will not respond via POV to MVCs or medical incidents on Highway 71. Response to MVCs or medical incidents on RR 2900 and RR 2233 are permitted at the discretion of each member of the FRO. Response to the intersection of RR 2233 and Highway 71 is permitted. Response to the intersection of RR 2233 and Highway 71 requires that POVs be parked on the RR 2233 pull-off on the RR 2233 side of that intersection. Response to MVCs on Highway 71 require meeting with the Command Vehicle at the intersection of Sunrise Drive and RR 2233 for the first two medical responders arriving; all others will proceed to the Station One and, if required, deploy using the Supply Vehicle.
Personnel responding to incident scene shall wear Department ID with name and rank visible on front of shirt and/or jacket. If member does not have Department ID available, Department shirt or jacket is acceptable.
ALL PERSONNEL WILL HAVE A VISIBLE MEANS OF DEPARTMENT IDENTIFICATION IF THEY DO NOT ARRIVE ON A FIRE DEPARTMENT APPARATUS.
NON-EMERGENCY DRIVING -“off duty driving”
Members need to remember that their driving behavior (i.e., reckless driving, excessive speed, “weaving in and out”, following too close, etc.) can affect the Fire Department and its members. Members that have identifying decals and fire department stickers on their POV’s must remember that citizens identify your actions as Fire Department actions or behavior. Police officers often contact the Fire Department and/or Dispatch to confirm membership status and sometimes to report excessive speed or erratic driving.
Members that have credible reports against their driving behavior may face disciplinary actions. A credible report includes, but are not limited to law enforcement officers, citizens with very specific information and gives their own personal information with report, etc.
This SOG is to provide a guideline to command; command may deviate as conditions of the scene dictate. Command should direct firefighting efforts to attempt to stabilize fire conditions by extending, WHEREVER POSSIBLE, an aggressive, well-placed, and adequate offensive fire attack effort and to support that aggressive attack with whatever resources and actions are required to reduce the fire extension and bring the fire under control.
A critical command decision (both initial and on-going) relates to the offensive/defensive mode of the situation:
• Offensive Strategy -interior attack and related support directed toward quickly bringing the fire under control.
• Defensive Strategy -exterior attack directed to first reduce fire extension and then bring the fire under control.
Command must determine the appropriate offensive/defensive mode based upon:
• Fire extent
• Structural condition
• Entry capability
• Rescue requirements of occupants
BASIC OFFENSIVE PLAN
1 Assume command
2 Establish an action plan that addresses the incident problems
3 Establish two in two out as approriate.
4 Strategically place the first attack line between the fire and the victim’s means of egress. This line should support a primary search.
5 Conduct a primary search. All companies conducting a primary search or engaging in fire suppression activities should have the TIC with them, when available. TIC resides on the Command Vehicle plus each SCBA has integral TIC on the controller.
6 Deploy a second line. This line could support the initial attack line, protect primary search crews, or attack or attack the fire depending on Command’s tactical needs.
7 Provide a constant water supply
8 Vent the structure when possible and trained
9 Control utilities
10 Perform salvage operations
BASIC DEFENSIVE PLAN
1 Assume command
2 Establish an action plan that addresses the incident situation
3 Evaluate fire spread, write off lost property as necessary
4 Provide a constant water supply
5 Identify key tactical positions
6 Prioritized fire streams, e.g., protect exposures, etc.
7 Provide large, well-placed streams
8 Quickly determine need for additional resources.
This SOG is to provide members with a guideline as for which apparatus to respond to an incident. An officer may request apparatus as needed and in a different order than this guideline. Incident Command may request all apparatus needed through a mutual aid call. The response shall consist of minimum equipment possible so that the rest of the county has adequate protection. Llano SO will coordinated mutual aid calls.
1. In City Limits of Sunrise Beach
• Supply Truck
• Supply, Attack Truck or Brush Truck (for personnel transport)
• Command Vehicle
2. OUT OF City Limits of Sunrise Beach (MUTUAL AID) as requested by Llano SO.
• Engine (only if requested or by department officer order)
• Attack Truck or Brush Truck (only if requested or by department officer order)
1. IN City Limits of Sunrise Beach
• Brush Truck
• Brush Truck
• Engine (for structure protection only as needed)
• Supply Truck
• Dozer if requested by Incident Command through Llano Road and Bridge
2. OUT of City Limits of Sunrise Beach (Mutual Aid) (See Task Force Plan approved by Llano Fire Chiefs Association)
• Brush Truck
• Brush Truck (only if requested or by department officer order)
• Supply Truck (only if requested or by department officer order)
• Engine (for structure protection only – only if requested or by department officer order)
AIRPORT / AIRCRAFT EMERGENCIES
1. On Sunrise Beach Airport
• Engine 1 as first-in vehicle
• Both Brush Trucks (if requested by command and personnel available)
2. MUTUAL AID
• Equipment as requested by Incident Command -1st Engine, Support Truck, and/or Tanker
ROADWAY INCIDENTS (See also Highway Response Policy/SOG as well)
1. IN City Limits of Sunrise Beach
• Engine 1
• Supply Truck
• Engine 2 (as needed)
• Brush Truck (as needed and personnel available)
2. OUT of City Limits (MUTUAL AID and Highway 71)
• Engine 1
- Supply for medical gear and lights
Brush Truck as needed
1. IN City Limits
• Engine 1
• Brush Truck as required
• SupplyTruck as required
• Tanker (if needed)
2. OUT OF CITY LIMITS (MUTUAL AID) as requested by Llano SO
• Engine 1
• Tanker (only if requested or by Shift Commander order)
• Supply Truck (as needed)
3. OFF ROADWAY –AGRICULTURAL/WILDLAND Fire
• Brush Truck
• Tanker (as needed)
• Supply Truck (as needed)
• Engine (by order of Shift Commander)
HELICOPTER LANDING ZONES
• Engine 1
• Brush Truck
• Command Vehicle
• Support/Rescue Landing Zones need minimum of 2 apparatus on scene. 1st unit enroute shall be an Engine unless Landing Zone will have no access for Engine (e.g., off-road operations required), in this case the Brush Truck will be first enroute and a 2nd Brush Truck will be 2nd enroute. Command vehicle can be used as 2nd apparatus when necessary.
This guideline shall be used during the initial phase of fire combat and is not intended to be all inclusive of an entire operation. Members of the same family are prohibited from interior firefighting simultaneously in the same structure.
The following tactical considerations must be accomplished during a working structure fire:
1 Ensure the availability of designated firefighter rescue personnel through two in two out.
2 Ensure firefighter safety
3 Complete primary search
4 Strategically place initial attack line(s)
5 Establish a constant water supply or establish rotation of tanker
6 Provide ventilation as appropriate and trained
7 Protect exposures
STRUCTURE FIRE ASSIGNMENTS
Responding engine and tanker companies must assume the following positions and duties on arrival at a working fire:
• First Engine – Officer assume command if it is not already established. He/she will conduct a “Hot Lap” to determine incident needs. He/She will report to Llano dispatch a scene “size-up.” He/she will then conduct offensive/defensive operations a determined by the “size up.” If interior attach is warranted then a supply line will be deployed using a pre-connected line for fire attack and primary search. He/she will ensure that two in two out is established prior to committing to an interior attack if the fire is beyond the incipient stage. NOTE-In the event of an imminent life-threatening situation when immediate action could prevent a loss of life or serious injury, the first engine can make an aggressive interior attack prior to the establishment of two in two out. When it is necessary to make an interior attack prior to the establishment of the two in two out, the Company Officer will announce his/her actions over the radio prior to entering the structure. If the fire is still in its Incipient Stage, the officer may initiate fire attack without establishing two in two out; the officer must announce “QUICK ATTACK” over the radio. The officer must consider firefighter safety, training, and physical capabilities very carefully before initiating a “QUICK ATTACK.” If an interior attack is not safe to conduct based upon responders on the scene and the situation, then a defensive attack should be initiated and exposures protected until such time as an interior attack is feasible in mitigating the incident.
• Second Engine -If command is not established, the second engines officer will assume command and the officer will set up two in two out. The assumption of command and establishment of two in two out will be announced over the radio. If first engines officer assumed command, second engine establish water supply or assignment transmitted by Command prior to arrival on scene.
• Tanker -establish water supply, additional assignments from Command.
• Supply assignments per Command
Members shall meet the requirements of a SFFMA Intro certification level prior to any interior structural firefighting. Members that have less than a SFFMA basic/FF1 certification involved in interior structure firefighting must be partnered with a member with minimum of a SFFMA basic/FF1 certification.
IMPORTANT -There must always be a minimum of two firefighters assigned to two in/two out while crews are combating an interior fire above the incipient phase.
These responsibilities will be accomplished upon arrival at a working structure fire, unless directed by command to do otherwise. Command always has the responsibility of changing tactical assignments at any time.
Chimney Fires Upon arrival at the scene of a chimney fire the officer riding the apparatus shall take a hand light, the thermal imaging camera and survey the situation. Two firefighters shall be in full turnout gear and pull a 1 ¾” attack line at the front door. The line shall be charged and bled of air. The line should not enter the structure, unless directed to do so by the Officer in Charge or visible fire is present inside the structure. To minimize damage all other firefighters shall remain outside the structure (except Officers), until instructed by an officer differently.
IDENTIFYING STRUCTURE SIDES
The “A side” of a structure shall be the front/street side (main entrance side) of the structure. The other sides will be identified in a clock-wise direction; identification of sides will be with letters, example “B”, “C”, “D”, etc.
CLASS A FOAM
1. Control settings
• Class A foam proportioning controls should be set in a range of .1% to .3% for use of class A foam solution.
2. After use requirements
• Class A foam reservoirs shall be refilled after every use.
• Turn off foam and flush system thoroughly with water, until no sign of foam, after every use.
FIRE STREAM MANAGEMENT
Purpose: To provide members with an understanding of the options involved in fire stream management.
1. The following items represent an index of the tactical effectiveness of hose lines:
2. Hose lines should be advanced inside fire buildings in order to control access to halls, stairways, or other vertical and horizontal channels through which people and fire may travel.
3. Basic Hose Line Placement
A. The first stream is placed between the fire and persons endangered by it.
B. When no life is endangered, the first stream is placed between the fire and the most severe exposure.
C. Second line is taken to secondary means of egress (always bear in mind the presence of personnel opposite the second line).
D. Succeeding lines to cover other exposures.
E. Whenever possible, position hose lines in a manner and direction that assists rescue activities, supports confinement, and protects exposures.
F. It is the responsibility of each engine company driver to provide its own uninterrupted, adequate supply of water. “Provide” in this case does not mean they must necessarily lay the line or that they must pump it. It is their responsibility to get water into their pump by whatever means are appropriate, e.g., nursing, water tanker shuttle, etc.
4. Hose Line Decisions
A. Hose line decisions generally involve the trade-off of time versus pure tactical placement. If a tactical placement principle is violated, back-up actions must be taken.
B. From the beginning, use the size of hose line that will eventually be required. If you need a big line provide it from the outset. If there is any doubt from the beginning, go to the next size hose line.
C. When you make a decision on what size fire stream to apply, select the size that is actually required. Beware of automatically going for the size you use most often or the size that is fastest and/or easiest.
D. When you change commitment from offensive to defensive and pull hand lines out of the fire building, do not continue to think in terms of hand lines, convert to exterior master streams, as appropriate. Give priority to water supply and application. The operating positions of such streams must also be evaluated, do not continue to operate into burned property.
E. Fire control forces must consider the characteristics of fire streams.
一 Solid Steam – more penetration, reach and striking power, less conversion
一 Fog – more gross heat absorption./expansion, low reach
一 1 ¾” Lines – fast, mobile, low volume
一 2 ½” Lines – big water, big knockdown, requires more manpower for mobility
一 Master Streams – mostly stationary, slow to set up, maximum water
5. Other Factors
A. Choose the proper nozzle and stream for the task.
B. Offensive attack activities must be highly mobile as their movement slows down; they necessarily become more defensive in nature and effect. Many times, effective offensive operations are referred to as “aggressive”.
C. Offensive attack positions should achieve an effect on the fire quickly. Consequently, back-up contingencies should also be developed quickly. If you apply water with an offensive attack position and the fire does not diminish, consider backing it up with another line or change plan of attack.
D. Be cognizant of extended operations. Fire conditions change during the course of fire operations (most things will only burn for a limited time) and the effect of hose line operation must be continually evaluated. If the operation of such lines becomes ineffective, move, adjust, or redeploy them. Beware of the potential of structural collapse due to extended burn time or added weight from application of water.
E. Beware of the limitations of operating nozzles through holes. The mobility of such streams is necessarily limited, and it is generally difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of such streams. Sometimes you must breach walls, floors, etc., to operate. Be sure to realize the limitations of such situations.
F. Consider that hose lines pump as much air as they pump water (particularly fog streams). Think of them as fans when making line placement decisions and use the fan characteristics in a manner that provides for confinement and reduces loss. Steam conversion can cause conditions to deteriorate and increase the potential for injury to personnel.
G. If you commit attack crews to inside operations, do not operate exterior streams into the same structure. Do not combine interior and exterior attacks in the same building. It may be necessary to coordinate pulling crews out of the structure while an exterior heavy streams knockdown is made. Know when to shut down nozzles – many times continuing operations of large streams prevents entry and complete extinguishment.
H. Do not operate fire steams into smoke – fire location must be determined before water can be effectively applied.
I. If you use an exterior stream, use a big one. Straight bore tips provide better penetration for heavy streams.
J. Be certain that Engines and Brush Trucks pumping at a fire are provided the most effective supply for fire stream operation.
K. Have attack lines ready during forcible entry operations. Attack crews must be fully protected before forcible entry is begun.
L. Company officers must assume responsibility for the effectiveness of their fire streams. Such officers must maintain an awareness of where fire streams are going and their effect, and report the general operational characteristics back to sector/Command.
M. Do not apply water to the outside of a roof and think you are extinguishing the fire. Such water application may offer effective exposure protection; but, if part of the roof is intact, it will shed water just like it was built to do. This will prevent water from reaching the seat of the fire.
N. NEVER operate fire streams into ventilation holes during offensive operations.
BRUSH AND GRASS FIRES
Personnel should size-up potential brush and grass fire potential with regard to fuel, topography, and extent of exposure to structures. Particular attention should be paid to access roads and accessible areas where apparatus may travel; stay aware of fuel and weather conditions that will increase the intensity of brush fires.
1. Report on conditions.
a. Determine actual location of fire (including size).
b. Direction and characteristic of fire travel.
c. Type of fuel burning (light grass, heavy bush).
e. Action being taken by first arriving unit.
2. Request additional equipment.
3. Determine plan of action based on priorities and resources available.
On major incidents, establish a Command Post and designate geographic areas as soon as possible. The Command Post should be in a location where it will be safe and not have to move if the fire changes direction. Supporting resources should be able to set up at the Command Post.
Command must quickly develop a firefighting plan. The following is a list of size-up considerations that greatly affects strategy.
• Location of fire head or heads -the fast-moving part of the fire.
• Pertinent burning conditions -weather, time of day, etc.
• Type of fuel -light, heavy
• Exposures -improvements, buildings, crops, etc .
• Size of fire and speed of travel
• Forecast fire spread or development. (where will the fire be in the next 5-15-30 minutes)
• Special hazards -hot spots, spot fires, developing heads
• Staffing needs including personnel safety
• Fuel continuity
• Accessibility into fire area
• Water resources -brush trucks, tankers, hydrants, etc.
• Line of retreat -route of escape
1. All members shall wear necessary protective clothing in accordance with the hazard. No firefighters will be allowed to participate in firefighting operations without proper PPE worn correctly. This applies to mutual aid situations when Sunrise Beach VFD is acting as Incident Command.
2. Safety rules for operating vehicles “off-road”.
a. Have a means of escape should your position be overrun.
b. Avoid commitment of units on narrow roads in heavy brush areas.
c. It is not uncommon for heavy vehicles to become stuck off road.
d. Before taking a unit “off road”, you must know location and direction of fire travel.
3. Post look out when advancing and manning lines in brush areas. Some things to be especially cautious of are:
a. Spot fires below your crew and frequent spot fires.
b. Heavy equipment working around your crew.
c. Changes in wind velocity and direction.
1 A means of escape shall be made known to all fire personnel working in brush areas. Stay close to burned area.
2 All personnel should know location and direction of travel of fire head(s).
3 Do not allow fire personnel to become exhausted. Provide rest periods. Frequency will be dependent upon topography and weather conditions.
4 Be alert to the possibility of downed electrical wire; there may be energized fences as a result.
5 Do not go downhill to attack a fire.
6 Conduct frequent and comprehensive PAR checks
The brush and grass fire philosophy is to aggressively stop forward progress of fire whenever possible.
Protect exposures if immediate control is not possible.
A direct water attack is the fastest control available to counteract wildfire spread. Clearly, many situations will not support this possibility. Command must be prepared to readjust strategy. It may be necessary to develop a defensive mode to protect exposures while allowing the fire to burn to a location better suited for control. In these cases, it may be best to use vehicle access to position apparatus to protect exposed structures and allow the main body of fire to pass by. Command will make an off-road procedural decision based on access, fire conditions, and safety of lives and equipment.
When water is in short supply, it is usually most effective when applied to burning material instead of wetting fuel in advance. Seriously exposed structures should be kept wet while exposed.
1 Base all actions and strategy on current and expected behavior of fire.
2 Structural protection and life safety take priority over extinguishment of brush.
3 If offensive attack is indicated, choose an anchor point and hit the head of the fire, if possible. If that is not possible, establish an anchor point and start of the flanks and work toward the head. Remain in the “black” at all times if possible. Avoid becoming “fuel” to the advancing fire line.
4 If the fire is a large, hot, and fast moving a direct attack may not be possible. In such cases, an indirect and/or parallel attack may be utilized by cutting a fire line a distance ahead of the fire (or utilizing natural fire breaks, such as highways) to halt the progress of the fire.
a. This may require allowing additional area to burn in the path of fire to place suppression equipment in a more defensible location.
b. Indirect attack is commonly used in conjunction with fire retardant drops, dozer fire line construction and back-firing techniques.
1 Multiple methods of attack may be used simultaneously according to the situation.
2 When assigned structural protection, engine companies must keep hose lays flexible enough to be able to quickly break away in the event of being overrun.
3 Consider the use of Class A foam.
8. In drought conditions it is advisable to use dirt moving equipment to provide a fire line. Roots may smolder underground and break out in unburned fuel.
Start overhaul as soon as personnel are available. Do not wait until the fire is completely contained unless it is absolutely necessary. Overhaul must be thorough; complete extinguishment is required to prevent a “rekindle” If there is a very large fire area, overhaul at least 100 yards into the main burn from the perimeter. Use water as often as possible to mop up. Dirt also works well. Remember that perimeter fire control only contains the fire. It is not out until every ember is cold. Embers can be blown over the perimeter and quickly start spot fires.
APPARATUS PLACEMENT AND USE
Observe the following precautions for apparatus:
1. Avoid placing apparatus directly in front of a brush or grass fire.
2. If parked in a grassy area, remember that the exhaust system can start a fire below the truck. Park on previously burned area.
3. Back apparatus in when turning space is limited.
4. Provide protection for the Apparatus Operator in case the wind changes direction.
5. Beware of becoming stuck in soft ground.
6. Know the limitations of the apparatus in rough terrain.
7. Be alert to the possibility of puncturing the tires.
8. Watch for burning embers in the hose bed.
9. Know apparatus clearance.
10. When driving in tall grass with poor ground visibility, use a point man on foot.
11. Do not use apparatus to physically remove barriers, i.e., fences, tree, etc.
12. When operating in rough and rocky terrain it is highly advisable to reduce speed and carefully pick the route to follow. The purpose is to avoid tire damage, wheel damage, or becoming high-centered on rocks or boulders. When possible, a firefighter should dismount and lead the truck through uncertain terrain.
BRUSH FIRE ASSIGNMENT
• First Brush Truck – scene size-up, request additional apparatus as needed, initiate fire attack from the “black”. The fire attack should be initiated on the head fire to slow progression of fire spread. As fire is controlled work fire line to ensure that no flair-ups occur. Fire is not out until all smoldering/hot spots are extinguished. When fire is under control notify Command and/or Dispatch.
• Second Brush Truck – assists with fire attack along head fire, attacking from the “black”. When fire is under control, assist with “mop-up”.
• First Tanker – establish water supply. Announce location of water resupply over the radio to attack crews. If command has not been established, assume command.
CLASS A FOAM
1. Control settings
• Class A foam proportioning controls should be set in a range of .1% to .3% for use of class a foam solution.
2. After use requirements
• Class A foam reservoirs shall be refilled after every use.
• Turn off foam and flush system thoroughly with water, until no sign of foam, after every use.
1. Requesting a Dozer
• If a dozer is needed for fire control it may be requested through dispatch from Llano Road and Bridge. For large or extreme fire behavior the Texas Forest Service shall be contacted for a dozer.
2. Dozer operations
• Only operators who have been trained in dozer operations shall operate dozers on scene.
• Dozers shall have a spotter who is in radio contact with the operator at all times.
• Personnel shall remain at least 200 feet from the dozer while in operation.
• Fire suppression crews shall be pulled out of the area while dozers are operating.
AIRPORT / AIRCRAFT EMERGENCIES
Generally, local area airports have only one runway. At all times, exercise extreme caution when traveling in aircraft operating areas. Aircraft always have right away over ground vehicles. If the aircraft is stopped and disabled on the runway, airport personnel will issue radio notice of the incident to other air traffic.
IMPORTANT: FOR ALL AIRCRAFT INCIDENTS, REQUEST DISPATCH TO CONTACT TEXAS DEPT. OF PUBLIC SAFETY (DPS) IMMEDIATELY ON CONFIRMATION OF CRASH.
NOTE: Be aware that the area airports are not controlled airports and, therefore, cannot be “closed” to traffic. Aircraft may land if the pilot determines it is safe to do so. In addition, aircraft sometimes land with limited radio contact. Consequently, when you are on or near the runway, be caution of incoming aircraft.
There are several considerations that helpful for operating at airports:
1 In fighting an aircraft fire, attack from upwind high ground. The main priority in an aircraft fire is protecting the means of access/egress for the aircraft occupants.
2 Use AFFF when necessary. Depending on the aircraft type, the amount of fuel on board may range from as little as 50 gallons to several thousand gallons.
3 When responding to a “wheel fire” or “hot brakes”, approach the landing gear from front or rear, not from the side. Do not spray water onto a hot wheel/brake assembly. Utilize a dry chemical extinguisher to extinguish any visible flames and then allow the assembly to cool down.
4 It is the responsibility of the owner/operator of an aircraft to make any required notification or reports regarding accidents or incidents to the FAA or NTSB.
Only use runways when necessary (i.e., aircraft is stopped and disabled on the runway). Use extreme caution and watch for aircraft landing.
This guideline shall be used for the initial phase of fire combat and is not intended to be all inclusive of an entire operation.
The following tactical considerations must be accomplished during a vehicle fire:
1 Ensure firefighter safety
2 Establish water supply if needed
3 Extinguish fire and minimize loss as much as possible
4 Preserve evidence for fire investigators
1 Overall personnel safety
2 SCBAs shall be used on all direct vehicle firefighting; all personnel not wearing SCBAs shall stay out of the smoke generated by the vehicle fire.
3 The apparatus shall be parked in a manner to offer the maximum protection of personnel from any traffic hazards.
4 Firefighters shall approach vehicle from the corners to minimize the chance of injury from bumper shocks and hood/trunk struts.
5 All personnel on scene not involved in direct fire attack will wear safety vest for visibility and identification.
VEHICLE FIRE ASSIGNMENTS
Responding apparatus will assume the following positions unless Incident Command orders otherwise.
• First Engine – For Engine One as principal responding pumper for vehicle fires, the Officer will assume command if not already accomplished and give size-up and request additional equipment as needed. The fire attack crew shall have all PPE required including SCBAs fully donned prior to beginning fire attack. The attack crew will begin fire attack with front cross-over lay 1 ¾” hose line as it is foam capable.
• Second Apparatus as required – Will position apparatus to provide extra traffic warning and maximum protection of personnel from traffic hazards. If the officer of first apparatus is fighting fire, the officer will assume command, unless command is established by an officer not involved with fire attack. If after dark Support/Rescue Truck needs to move up to a position to use scene lights to illuminate the scene. The crew will assist as needed determined by Command.
• Tanker -Will establish a water supply to apparatus involved in the fire attack.
CLASS A FOAM
1. Control settings
• Class A foam proportioning controls should be set in a range of .1% to .3% for use of class a foam solution.
2. After use requirements
• Class A foam reservoirs shall be refilled after every use.
• Turn off foam and flush system thoroughly with water, until no sign of foam, after every use.
This policy identifies procedures and parking practices for Fire Department apparatus and other emergency vehicles that will provide maximum protection and safety for personnel operating in or near traffic. It also identifies several approaches for individual practices to keep firefighters safe while exposed to the hazardous environment created by moving traffic.
It shall be the policy of Sunrise Beach VFD to position fire apparatus at vehicle-related roadway incidents in a manner that best protects the incident scene. Such positioning shall afford protection to Fire Department and emergency medical personnel from hazards of working in or near moving traffic.
The following terms shall be used during incidents related to operating in or near traffic.
1 Block -The positioning of Fire Department apparatus at an angle to the lanes of traffic creating a physical barrier between upstream traffic and the work area. Includes “blocking to the right or blocking to the left”.
2 Upstream -The direction that traffic is traveling from as the vehicles approach the incident scene.
3 Downstream -The direction that traffic is moving as it travels away from the incident scene.
4 Shadow -the protected area at a vehicle-related roadway incident that is shielded by the block from apparatus and other emergency vehicles.
5 Work Zone -The physical area of a roadway within the shadowed area where emergency personnel perform their fire, EMS, and rescue tasks at a vehicle-related incident.
6 Taper -The action of merging several lanes of moving traffic into fewer lanes.
The Shift Commander arriving on scene will establish Command and give an accurate size-up that should include the exact location and direction of travel, nature of the incident and traffic conditions.
A follow-up report should indicate:
1 Number of patients/severity of injuries.
2 Extrication needs.
3 Hazardous materials spill.
4 Evacuation needs.
5 Call for additional resources
• Units should attempt to reach the scene in the direction of the reported incident.
• Units should proceed in the opposite direction of normal traffic flow only at the specific request of police when it is assured that it is assured that all traffic has been stopped, or at the direction of the Incident Commander who has verified through police that all traffic has been stopped.
1. First Apparatus Always position the first arriving apparatus as an initial block to protect the scene, patients, and emergency personnel.
• Apparatus will be positioned for use of rescue tools and/or hose line when equipment is needed.
• Apparatus will be positioned to create a “shadow”. One foot of shadow should be allowed for every mile an hour of posted speed. (Example: posted speed of 55 mph equals placing the apparatus 55 feet from the wrecked vehicles).
• A work zone will be established within the shadow area.
• Angle apparatus on the roadway with a “block to the left” or “block to the right” to create a physical barrier between the crash scene and approaching traffic.
• Turn wheels to the side to prevent the apparatus from being pushed into the work zone if struck.
• When practical, position the pump panel towards the work zone.
• Use fire apparatus to block at least the lane that is obstructed by the crashed vehicle(s). Always block the whole lane.
2. Second Apparatus
The second arriving fire apparatus will be used to maximize overall scene safety. Command will determine if the second dispatched is beneficial to operations and/or safety and will assign or disregard. When assigning the second unit, Command will consider the following:
• Requirement for a Scene Safety Officer.
• Placing the second fire apparatus upstream to create a taper for approaching traffic.
• At intersections there may be two or more sides of the incident will need to be protected.
3. Medic Units (Ambulances)
Arriving Medic units will be positioned within the protected work zone.
All personnel shall understand and appreciate the high risk that personnel are exposed to when operating in or near moving vehicle traffic. To improve personal safety, emergency workers shall:
• Always wear assigned reflective vest or similar Department issued ANSI/ISEA 107-1999 approved garment. If a SCBA is not required for the incident, the safety garment shall be worn by all Fire Department responders operating on the scene, either over the uniform or turnout coat, day or night.
• Where possible, avoid turning your back to approaching traffic.
• Be aware of and work within the work zone.
• Use extreme caution if placing traffic cones outside the work zone.
• Work as rapidly as possible and then clear the traffic lanes off the roadway.
LIAISON WITH POLICE DEPARTMENT
Command will establish liaison with police at the scene as quickly as possible. If the incident presents extreme safety concerns, Command will work with Police to completely shut down the roadway and re-direct traffic. The primary responsibility of the liaison with Police:
• Traffic control
• Directing the approach of additional resources to scene.
• Crowd control
The purpose of this guideline is to provide guidance to emergency calls involving bees. Company Officers should consider the following facts to resolve the incident safety.
1. If bees are not aggressive
• If bees are not attacking, do not try to kill them or wash them away. Do use barricade tape to isolate the area and contact a registered beekeeper through Dispatch. The beekeeper will remove the bees.
2. If bees are aggressive
• Wear full protective clothing, SCBA.
• Use a fog stream. A continuous spray fog pattern from a 1 ¾” hose line will calm swarming bees because the water fog simulates rain.
• Do not use pesticide to kill bees.
• Use soapy water. Soapy water will kill the bees. The glycerin in the soap will make the bees wings stick together and the water will drown them. A pump sprayer with one gallon of water mixed with eight ounces of dishwasher soap will work. If this is not available, use foam with a 1 ¾” hose to control the bees.
3. Have EMS respond and stage until called to come to the scene or release if they are no longer needed.
The following guidelines are for use by Department personnel who are confronted with hostile or potentially hostile situations that may present a danger to responders. Efficiently answering an urgent call for assistance remains our priority; however, responding personnel must exercise safety precautions during threatening conditions.
INCIDENT WITH PAST HISTORY
1. Upon dispatch to an identified target area, request law enforcement to be dispatched to the scene.
2. Stage at your discretion based on known information.
INCIDENT JUDGED TO PRESENT IMMINENT DANGER ON ARRIVAL
1. Do not enter the area immediately.
2. Request assistance from law enforcement
3. Stage until the incident scene is secured by police.
INCIDENT PRESENTS IMMINENT DANGER DURING SERVICE DELIVERY
1. Withdraw from the area as safely and quickly as possible and/or seek appropriate available shelter.
2. Request assistance from law enforcement as soon as possible.
3. Do not re-enter the scene until it is secured by police.
Have EMS respond and stage until safe to enter or their presence is no longer needed.
If dispatched to stage, do not enter scene until scene is secured by police. If dispatched to stage, stage out of sight of the scene.
Helicopter Landing Zones
The purpose of this guideline is to ensure a safe landing zone for all incoming medical air transport and forestry helicopters.
SAFETY AND TACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
1 The landing zone site needs to be a minimum of 120’ x 120’ unobstructed from overhead or ground objects. Area must be clear of wires, trees, buildings, poles, emergency vehicles, debris, and other obstacles.
2 All overhead obstructions that border landing zone should be marked with a vehicle with overhead emergency lights.
3 The landing zone should be as flat as possible; rough, uneven, or more than 5% slope is unacceptable for a landing zone. If the helicopter must land on a slope or grade, personnel should approach from the downhill side, but never from the rear.
4 In cases where a highway is the landing zone, traffic should be stopped at least 150 feet away in both directions.
5 The perimeter must be secured; under no circumstances are firefighters or civilians to be in the landing zone during the helicopter’s final approach or within 100’ of the helicopter while it is on the landing zone without the knowledge and approval of the Flight Crew. No vehicles or personnel shall be within 100’ of the helicopter.
6 Always approach the helicopter from the side (45° to 90°). Never go near the tail of the helicopter. Always wait for a signal from the pilot before approaching the helicopter.
7 The Landing Zone Coordinator is the only person that will communicate landing zone instructions to the helicopter on the radio. The Landing Zone Coordinator will be the Incident Commander or the firefighter appointed by the Incident Commander. In some cases, Hamilton EMS Medical Command can and will assume LZ Coordinator duties.
8 The Incident Commander may appoint a Safety Officer for perimeter security. The Safety Officer is also responsible for the secondary survey of the landing zone for safety issues.
9 Landing Zones need minimum of 2 apparatus on scene 1st enroute shall be an Engine unless Landing Zone will have no access for Engine, in this case the Brush Truck will be first enroute and another Brush Truck will be second.
10 Traditional flares and traffic cones shall not be used to mark the landing zone. The flares could start a grass fire and the traffic cones could be blown around and damage the helicopter. The only acceptable marking devises are the low-profile LED traffic flares.
11 Apparatus shall be positioned in a way that marks overhead obstructions, with headlights (front of vehicles) pointed towards the landing zone. ALL CLEAR AND EXCEPTIONALLY BRIGHT LIGHTS POINTED INTO LANDING ZONE SHALL BE TURNED OFF ON THE HELICOPTER’S FINAL APPROACH AND WHILE ON GROUND FOR THE PILOTS VISION SAFETY.
12 Protect eyes from debris that may be thrown up by the rotor wash. No helmets without chinstraps, ball caps or hats are to be worn when operating near the helicopter.
13 All loose items such as cot sheets, supplies, hats, etc. must be secured when approaching or retreating from the helicopter.
14 SB-VFD may land helicopters from either Careflite or AirEvac 49. Radio Frequencies to be used are as directed by Llano Dispatch, primary will be WR-Helo talk group.
1 1st Engine –the officer shall assume command unless command is established; and survey area for the safest landing zone area possible; the landing zone must meet the minimum criteria. The crew shall deploy a 1 ¾” hose line and survey the landing zone ground area for any debris that could become airborne from the helicopter’s air turbulence.
2 2nd Apparatus –this apparatus, unless receiving other orders from command, shall position in a way to mark additional overhead obstructions that the 1st apparatus did not mark. This apparatus will assist with scene safety and security but will not deploy any hose lines as to stay available for relocation in an emergency.
3 All additional apparatus –assignments will be as Incident Command determines.
Building and Vehicle Lockout
It is the policy of the SB-VFD to assist residents, who are responsible parties involved, in gaining entry to buildings or vehicles when they become locked out.
1. Priority response
a. Vehicle lock out calls in which there is a child, incapacitated person, or pet inside.
b. Locked vehicle with engine running.
c. Person locked out of building with stovetop or oven left on.
d. Any situation that may be deemed a threat to life or property.
1 Upon arrival check all doors and windows to see if entry can be gained without using force.
2 Upon arrival if the locked vehicle is not running and the temperature is 85 degrees F or above and occupants show signs of distress, a window will be broken to gain access if quick access is not possible by other means.
3 If the temperature is not an issue, attempts can be made to make entry by personnel trained to use the lockout kit.
4 Care should be taken not to cause any damage to the vehicle unless there is a life safety hazard involved. In all cases, an attempt should be made to minimize any damage.
5 If there is no life safety hazard, a locksmith should be notified for entry of buildings and vehicles.
6 Law Enforcement shall be called and on scene if possible, prior to gaining entry.
All other types of lockouts not listed above are considered non-priority. Responding unit will divert or leave the scene from these non-priority incidents to respond to emergency calls.
Vehicle Rescue and Extrication
To establish guidelines for handling vehicle and heavy equipment rescue and extrication safely and effectively
SB-VFD will utilize proper patient/victim protection and handling procedures for safe and efficient victim extrication while utilizing all appropriate personnel safety procedures.
1 Apparatus shall be properly positioned upon arrival at the incident scene, upwind and uphill when feasible. Apparatus will be parked in a position to afford maximum protection for personnel operating at the scene.
2 Vehicle placards and vehicle type will be assessed as part of initial size-up immediately upon arrival at the incident.
3 Additional assistance/mutual aid will be requested immediately if needed. Extrication is labor intensive, additional personnel needs should be considered early in the incident. Command and/or Dispatch will be notified in the event of an extended extrication or multiple injuries requiring additional apparatus. Incident Command should never be hesitant to request back-up or mutual aid to assist.
4 All personnel operating at the scene shall utilize appropriate personal protective gear. A minimum of a 1¬3/4” hand-line shall be deployed and charged for protection of the victim and personnel operating at the scene.
5 Mitigation of fuel leaks or other hazards shall be initiated immediately. Electrical power to the involved vehicles shall be disconnected (by trained/certified personnel) prior to starting victim extrication.
6 The vehicle shall be stabilized prior to the entry by rescue personnel or the initiation of physical extrication procedures. All personnel shall be aware of and disable when possible supplemental safety restraint devices in a vehicle (air bags). Consideration will be made of the potential for side and overhead supplemental restraint devices.
7 The Incident Commander or his designee shall direct all extrication activities to prevent “freelancing” of personnel. Incident Management procedures shall be utilized.
8 It is the policy of the SB-VFD to “remove the vehicle from the victim” to prevent additional injury when at all possible. This can include the use of hand tools, heavy lift air bags, hydraulic rescue tools, and heavy lift equipment.
9 In the event of a fatality, every effort will be made to preserve the scene for police investigation. Crews will assist with the removal of entrapped fatalities at the request of the Medical Examiner or JP.
Power Lines and Energized Electrical Equipment
It is our policy to respond to reports of power lines down and other hazards involving energized electrical equipment (transformers, substations, electric vaults) for fire control and public safety. It is the responsibility of the company officer to maintain that level of safety until relieved by another fire company, police agency or utility company.
This guideline will establish a standard approach and response to the report of power lines down. Power lines can come in contact with the ground as a result of storm related activity, fire, or vehicles striking power poles. In all cases, the potential for electrical shock/electrocution and secondary fire must be considered.
ELECTRIC SAFETY AWARENESS
Electricity always seeks its lowest level or ground. It will travel any path it can as it seeks a ground. A direct path to ground is when contact is made between something energized and a portion of your body such as your hand, arm, head, or other body part. An indirect path to ground occurs when you are holding or touching an object that is in contact with something energized. This could include tools or other equipment you may be holding or when touching a fence, vehicle, or other object that may be in contact with something energized.
Gradient Voltage (Step and Touch Potential)
When power lines are down, they will energize the ground around them. For Example: point of ground contact could be 700 volts. This voltage will lessen as it radiates out from this point; for example, 400 volts. If your feet are in areas where there is a voltage difference, you could complete the circuit and be the source to ground. This is called “step potential.” This danger could be indicated by a tingling sensation in the feet and serve as a warning to back away from the area.
• Lock out of down power lines generally occurs after three (3) operations or attempts to re-energize. Even though you may hear this, do not assume the line is dead or de-energized. Downed lines must always be considered energized with potentially lethal current.
• Lines can reset and become “hot” or “energized” again by manual operation of a switch, by automatic re-closing methods (either method from short or long distances away), by induction where a de-energized line can become hot if it’s near an energized line, or through back feed conditions.
• Power line tends to have “Reel Memory” and may curl back or roll on itself when down.
• Use caution when spraying water on or around energized electrical equipment. Hose streams conduct current! Never spray directly into the power lines. Use a fog spray at the base of the pole. Your primary responsibility is to protect the surrounding area.
• PCB hazards: Smoke potentially fatal; avoid and contain pools of oil around transformers.
RESPONSE TO POWER LINES DOWN
1 Request utility company to respond.
2 Consider all down wires as “energized.”
3 Place apparatus away from “down lines and power poles.”
4 Locate both ends of downed wires.
5 Secure the area/deny entry.
6 Periods of high activity; company officer may choose to leave one (1) crew member on-scene with a radio to wait for utility company.
7 In the event of multiple lines/poles down over a large area, call additional resources.
Down Power Lines and Vehicles
1 Request utility company to respond.
2 Do not touch vehicle
3 Have occupants remain inside the vehicle
4 Place apparatus a safe distance away from down lines.
5 If occupants must leave the vehicle (fire or other threat to life) instruct them to open the door, do not step-out! They should jump free of the vehicle without touching vehicle and ground at the same time.
Two In – Two Out
1. Purpose To establish guidelines for the implementation of OSHA 29 CFR 1910.134, Two In/Two Out Rule, and its application during emergency operations. The Two In /Two Out Rule provides for rapid rescue of initial entry personnel operation in the IDLH atmosphere.
2. Scope This SOG applies to all operational personnel.
IDLH: Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health atmosphere (IDLH), i.e. interior structure fire, confined space, toxic, or oxygen deficient environments, and environments with potential to become IDLH.
RIT: Rapid Intervention Team (RIT) consists of at least two personnel fully equipped with appropriate protective clothing, self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), and specialized rescue equipment that might be needed for the specific operation under way.
IRIT/Standby Team: Initial Rapid Intervention Team (IRIT), also called Standby Team, is the crew available for rescue prior to assignment of a dedicated RIT, consisting of at least two personnel fully equipped with appropriate protective clothing, SCBA, and specialized rescue equipment that might be needed for the specific operation underway. This team may be engaged in secondary activities as described.
Two In/Two Out: Regulation requiring a team of at least two personnel to be organized before entering an IDLH atmosphere. It requires the IRIT of at least two personnel outside the IDLH atmosphere to back up the entry team in the event they require rapid rescue.
4. Compliance Instructions
The Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established a set of compliance instructions regarding the number of firefighters required to be present on the fire ground prior to commencing an initial interior attack on a structure fire.
This compliance notice, “Two In/Two Out”, requires a standby team (IRIT) of at least two personnel to back up entry of two personnel before the initial attack into an IDLH atmosphere. These personnel shall be fully equipped with appropriate protective clothing, SCBA, and any specialized rescue equipment that might be needed for the specific operation under way.
Exceptions: Two Exceptions to the “Two In/Two Out” Rule may be taken only for life rescue and incipient stage of the fire given the following criteria:
a. Information that an immediate risk to life safety exists within the interior IDLH atmosphere combined with the realistic expectations of successfully performing a rescue.
b. OSHA states that “once firefighters begin the interior attack on an interior structure fire, the atmosphere is assumed to be IDLH”. OSHA defines interior structural firefighting “as the physical activity of fire suppression, rescue or both inside of enclosed structures which are involved in a fire situation beyond the incipient stage.” OSHA further defines an incipient stage fire as a “fire which is in the initial or beginning stage and which can be controlled or extinguished by portable fire extinguishers, Class II standpipe or small hose system without the need for protective clothing or breathing apparatus.” Any Structural fire beyond incipient stage is an IDLH atmosphere by OSHA.
5. Departmental Operation
A. Entry Team personnel operating in hazardous areas shall operate in teams of two or more and be equipped with SCBA. They shall maintain constant communication between each team member through visual, audible, physical, safety device, or electronic means.
B. Standby Team (IRIT) Personnel shall maintain constant communication between each team member through visual, audible, physical, safety device, or electronic means. Only one of the two IRIT outside the IDLH atmosphere may be engaged in secondary duties, e.g, fire engineer, incident commander, or other qualified personnel, may fill a standby position if their primary focus is to be dressed for and ready to perform a rescue from the IDLH atmosphere. Standby personnel may only be involved in secondary duties if abandoning those duties does not jeopardize the safety or health of any personnel on scene. No one shall be permitted to serve as standby personnel when other activities they are engaged in inhibit the ability to assist in performing a rescue or are of such importance they cannot be abandoned without placing other firefighters in danger.
6. Rapid Intervention Team (RIT)
A. Purpose: To locate and rescue trapped, injured, or lost firefighters during fire ground or other dangerous operations. It is imperative the IC does not assign RIT members for an operation other than as emergency standby personnel. This will also assist in the objective of “two in/two out” when working in the hazard zone.
B. RIT Equipment
1 Equipment selection will be based upon a variety of factors, Le., type of incident, building construction, availability of personnel and equipment, condition of the burning building.
2 Tools should be grouped according to potential needs of the incident.
a. Minimum Tools Required: All incidents require at least this level of tools, which always includes:
(1) full PPE
(2) SCBA donned (not breathing air; conserve air for rescue situations or fire attack relief)
(3) hand light for each member
(4) hand tools (Halligan and flat head axe)
(5) radio,(6) Thermal Imaging Camera(TIC).
1 The RIT team shall normally be staged at the point of entry so rapid access may be accomplished in the event of an emergency rescue situation.
2 The RIT may need to be mobile to accomplish additional preplanning activities, ex., throwing ladders, stretching hose lines, dismantling security bars.
3 The RIT officer may need to be mobile to assess fire conditions, monitor safety of firefighting actions, converse with Rehab Officer, Accountability Officer, and Command.
4 In the event of multiple points of entry, command shall designate the location for the RIT or consider the assignment of a second RIT.
1 The RIT team reports directly to the IC.
2 In the event of a rescue assignment, all communication must be kept to a minimum, focusing on the rescue situation.
3 If available, a second radio frequency should be activated for all non-rescue traffic.
4 The RIT officer must closely monitor all radio traffic to be aware of the progress of the firefighting and general areas in which companies are operating.
E. Team Responsibilities
1 Closely monitor fire ground radio traffic to get a head start as a situation deteriorates.
2 Monitor fire conditions; at any minute, the team could be sent to any part of the structure.
3 Become familiar with the layout of the building; learn all entrances and egresses.
4 Be prepared, mentally and physically, when assigned to the RIT team.
5 Do not accept a reassignment until properly relieved by a new RIT team.
6 Make the incident as safe as possible by anticipating rescue scenarios, Le., unlock doors, position ladders for escape, remove security bars, clean glass out of windowpanes opened for ventilation.
7 Realize you may be called upon to rescue a fellow firefighter; do not allow yourself to become complacent.
F. Initiation of RIT’s
1 RIT crews shall be used on any incident deemed necessary by the IC.
2 All interior fire ground operations must establish RITs.
3 Any hazardous condition may dictate the need for RITs.
4 The IC should never put crews in a dangerous area unless a calculated and significant benefit can be yielded, ex., viable victims that can be safely rescued. The IC can operate without a RIT team only if initial attack personnel find a known life hazard situation where immediate action could prevent loss of life. The benefit must equal the risk.
5 The sole purpose of the RIT is for firefighter safety. We rescue the public and the RITs rescue us.
1. The IC assigns companies on each incident. The fire company reports directly to command. The RIT engine/truck will have the radio designator of RIT followed by their company number, ex., Engine 1 you are assigned to RIT TEAM.
A. The initial RIT will normally consist of the first due company Driver and one member from the second arriving unit, ex.: Chief or Officer off the second unit. These two shall don full PPE and SCBA (off air) while continuing to operate.
B. The IRIT must be able to serve their assignment and be a functional member of the IRIT. If unable to do both, interior fire operations are postponed until more personnel can arrive to adequately staff the IRIT.
3. Assigned RIT
A. Extended RIT utilizes an entire company from the first alarm assignment. Crews are not to be separated. The IC must consider rehab for members of this crew when operating under extreme weather conditions.
A. The “Apparatus PAR System” is a key component for firefighter accountability for personnel assigned to each company. Accurate maintenance of this information on each apparatus is necessary for the Department to comply with “accountability” requirements in the NFPA 1500 Standard.
B. All company officers shall assure that nametags carried on assigned apparatus are updated whenever staffing changes occur.
C. It is the responsibility of all Sunrise Beach VFD personnel to assist in making the overall accountability system as effective and accurate as possible.
Rescue of Missing, Lost, or Trapped Firefighters
This procedure identifies the operational approach for the search and rescue of missing, lost, or trapped firefighters on an incident. Rescue needs of this nature generally fall under one of two categories: a firefighter who is either trapped by a collapse or is lost within a smoke-filled, burning building.
The rescue of missing, lost, or trapped firefighters in a burning building is extremely time sensitive. An immediate and well-organized search and rescue response must be implemented to take advantage of the very limited survivable time element.
The philosophy during a rescue operation is as follows:
Work as a team.
Make rescue the highest priority.
Act swiftly; time is of the essence.
Commit necessary resources to the rescue effort.
Protect the last known location of the missing, lost, or trapped firefighters.
Firefighters who are missing, lost, or trapped in or around the structure or incident should attempt to perform the following functions:
On the portable radio, declare a “Mayday” three times followed by your company ID, department ID and location, or best-known location to Command (example: “Mayday, Mayday, Mayday, Beach Engine 1, 265, 2nd floor rear of the house”., and repeat the phrase until an acknowledgement from Command is received.
Activate PASS to assist rescue crews in their search.
Point flashlight beams in the direction of rescue crews or straight in the air to alert rescuers of your location.
Keep command informed of noises heard to aid in their rescue, i.e., overhead ventilation efforts with saws, etc.
Kick legs or move arms to attract rescuers.
Tap or beat on the surroundings.
Shout for help.
Take every measure necessary to increase survivability.
Use a controlled breathing technique to conserve your air supply.
In the event firefighters are suspected of being missing or upon receipt of the “Mayday”, Command shall perform the following functions:
1. Announce emergency traffic.
2. Declare a ”Mayday” on the fireground channel and advise them of the following:
Which firefighters are missing (by name or ID#), lost, or trapped.
How many firefighters are in the missing company
The firefighters last known location on the fireground
3. Assign the RIT to initiate a rescue at the last known location of the missing firefighters
4. Call the next greater alarm level
5. Assign companies to assist or support the rescue effort. Consider the development of a Rescue Group.
6. Conduct a PAR of all companies to confirm the number of missing, lost, or trapped firefighters
Command will adjust the incident management plan to a high priority rescue effort to protect firefighters from the effects of fire. Command shall order personnel to immediately place additional attack lines or deck guns as appropriate in the collapse area to protect trapped firefighters and rescuers. (Note: This should be performed by personnel with caution so as not to cause further harm to the firefighters from the effects of the water.) Positive pressure ventilation should be initiated to improve atmospheric conditions and visibility. A defensive mode of operations, which is intended to control the fire by limiting its spread and avoiding a large commitment of personnel, may be required, and should be considered to commit resources to the rescue effort.
Command must advise all emergency scene company companies via radio when the missing, lost, or trapped firefighters have been found. This is to ensure that no further rescue attempts result in the needless injury or death of rescuers. Once rescue has been terminated, Command must conduct a PAR.
When searching for firefighters, the following should be considered to aid in the search and rescue efforts:
Visible sighting of trapped firefighters such as body appendages.
Knowledge of the firefighters last known location.
Listen for shouts from the collapse area, tapping noises, sounds from a portable radio broadcast in the collapse area, breathing and/or moaning noises, the sound of the PDD, or the sound of SCBA low air.
Tracing hose lines or search ropes into the collapse area.
The location of ladders, fans, etc.
Personnel operating or working near power saws shall wear full protective clothing.
SCBA shall be worn, when necessary, to provide both eye and inhalation protection.
The operator and guide shall have their clothing completely buttoned and close fitting to prevent accidents caused by belts, gears, chains, blades, etc.
The chain saw must be started on the ground before ascending the ladder. If carried with engine running, the chain brake must be set.
Keep both hands on the control handles when operating the saw. Use a firm grip, with thumbs and fingers encircling the saw handles.
Make sure of footing before operating the saw.
Whenever possible, a team of two members shall perform cutting operations. The member operating the saw (operator) will be assisted or guided by the second member (guide).
Always shut down the saw when unattended.
Have a plan of action before putting the saw into operation; the plan should include:
Location and sequence of cuts and openings.
Wind directions. Consider its effect on exposures and personnel.
Pre-planned escaped routes, plan at lease (2) means of egress, if possible.
Whenever possible, an officer should be present to supervise cutting operations and assure compliance with safety procedures.
Personnel operating or near the extrication tool shall wear full protective clothing.
To provide eye protection in the event of a hose or coupling failure where fluid may be expelled; all personnel around operation of an extrication tool shall place their ANSI Z87 approved eyewear in position to provide protection.
During extrication, place a charged line (not less than 1 ¾” in diameter) in operation with a firefighter in position at the nozzle at all times.
If using the hydraulic powered extrication tool power unit downwind and uphill where possible. When possible, position a firefighter at the power unit to provide emergency shutdown.
Take precaution to protect the trapped and injured from further injuries.
CERTIFICATION AND RESPONSIBILITIES
All Volunteer Fire Department members are encouraged to obtain at least a Hazardous Materials Awareness Level within one (1) year from start date.
INITIAL COMPANY RESPONSIBILITIES:
Initial responding Company is responsible for the following:
1 To control all hazardous material incidents within the scope of their training and equipment.
2 To assist the Hazardous Material Team and/or Smith County Emergency Management.
3 To perform other hazardous materials incident activities under the supervision of a hazardous materials technician.
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS RESPONSE TEAM
Llano County does not have a Hazardous Materials Response Team. In the event a response team is needed consult with a Chief Officer to request a TFD response. All TFD HazMat responses MUST BE approved from the Llano County Emergency Operations Department.
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS OPERATIONS GUIDELINES AND RESPONSE LEVELS
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENT LEVELS
Spill, leaks, rupture, damaged containers and/or fires involving hazardous materials which can be contained, extinguished, and/or abated utilizing equipment, supplies, and resources immediately available to the First Responder Operations level (FRO). (ie: small fuel spill on the scene of an MVC.)
A hazardous materials incident that may require the use of any kind of specialized protective equipment, tool, or knowledge not available and beyond the scope of First Responder Operations level. Requires a Hazardous Materials Response Team to respond to contain and/or stabilize the incident. Consult with a Chief Officer to request a response from TFD Haz Mat. All TFD Haz Mat responses MUST BE approved by the Llano County Emergency Response Department.
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS OPERATIONS GUIDELINES
INITIAL ON-SCENE ACTIONS
Fire Department First Responder Operations Level -First On Scene
The first arriving officer will establish command and begin a size-up. The officer must consciously avoid committing the company to a dangerous situation. When approaching, slow down or stop to assess any visible activity occurring. Evaluate effects of wind, topography, and location of the situation. Command should advise all other units to stage in a location that takes into account wind, spill flow, explosion potential, and similar factors in any situation.
Identification: The first Department unit on scene shall determine if hazardous materials are involved in the incident. Use of 2 in 2 out rules must apply for IDLH. If confirmed, the company officer, in a safe manner, must attempt to identify:
• The type of material involved.
• The quantity of the material involved.
• The possibility of contamination.
• The immediate exposure problem.
• The threat to life safety.
If the officer of the first arriving company determines that hazardous materials are involved, the incident is a Level 1 within the capabilities of a FRO to handle correctly, they shall:
1 Inform Dispatch that the unit on scene will handle it.
2 Proceed to handle the incident and mitigate the problem.
Scene Isolation: If the officer of the first responding unit determines that the incident is beyond the capabilities of the FRO, the incident shall be upgraded to a Level 2 hazardous materials incident. This will initiate the dispatch of the HMRT and Llano County Emergency Management.
The officer shall also do the following:
1 Isolate the scene, restrict entry.
2 Secure and identify the scene using “banner” tape or existing structural features, i.e., fence-lines to identify hazard area.
3 Assure that crew assignments are within the expertise and limitations of their equipment, protective gear, and training.
4 Establish a temporary Emergency Decon Site.
5 Begin gathering information regarding the incident and the product.
6 Initiate containment techniques within the scope of their capabilities.
7 Initiate procedures to protect or remove civilians from the immediate area.
8 Identify a Staging Area when appropriate.
In all cases, the Company Officer of the first arriving unit shall inform all incoming companies of the situation and the actions being initiated. The officer should advise the responding HMRT of which access routes they should use when approaching the incident.
If a Level 2 response has been requested, Command should determine what other assistance would be necessary to call to the scene, such as:
• Additional Fire units for staffing and support.
• Law Enforcement units for traffic control.
• EMS assistance (ambulance) for injured, air transport (Air One, Flight For Life, etc.) will not be called for injured patients who have been contaminated by hazardous materials. Ground transport will be the only method of transportation for patients exposed to hazardous materials.
Advantages and Reasons for a Level 2 Response: In addition to scrutinizing an incident to determine if intervention may go beyond the capability of the responding FRO, it is important to note which other reasons may require the need for elevating a hazardous materials incident from a Level 1 to a Level 2, even if some intervention can be done at the FRO level:
• The need for identifying a suspected unknown to determine or verify its identity.
• The need to determine the migration of substances, including sizable quantities of unknown chemicals (gasoline), through drainage system, and the protocols of notifying all the agencies associated with such a case.
• The need to take samples of a hazardous material, so investigators can start the “chain of evidence”.
• The capabilities of existing on-scene personnel are not sufficient.
COMMAND’S GOALS FOR A HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENT
Command is responsible for determining the strategic goals for the incident. There are nine strategic goals for a hazardous materials incident. Command must use these to guide his/her goal setting:
• Initial Evacuation
• Site Access Control Points (hot zone, cold zone, area of refuge)
• Police or Sheriff Department
• Office of Emergency Management
• Environmental Services
• Other Agencies
• Placards (I.D. numbers, shipping papers, name, phone number)
• Facility Plan
• Responsible Party
4. Protective Actions
• In-Place Protection
5. Spill Control
• Type (gas/air, liquid/surface, liquid/water, solid/surface)
6. Leak Control
• Product Transfer
• Remote Shutoff
• Pressure Reduction
7. Fire control
• Exposure Protection
• Fire Suppression
• Vapor Suppression
• Equipment Decontamination
• Personnel Decontamination
• Cleanup Oversight
• Incident Critique
• Fire Prevention
• After-Action Report
HAZARDOUS MATERIAL OPERATIONS GUIDELINES
A hazardous materials incident site must be controlled to:
• Reduce contact with contaminants.
• Ensure removal of contaminants by personnel or equipment leaving the site (decon)
• Limit the number of persons exposed to the hazardous situation.
• Reduce confusion that is inherent with uncontrolled groups.
The possibility of exposure or translocation of substances can be reduced or eliminated in several ways including:
• Setting up security and physical barriers to exclude unnecessary personnel from the general area.
• Minimizing the number of personnel and equipment on-site consistent with effective operations.
• Establishing work zones within the site.
• Conducting operations in a manner to reduce the exposure of personnel and equipment and to eliminate the potential for airborne dispersion.
• Implementing appropriate decontamination procedures.
At the earliest possible stage of a hazardous material incident, Command should establish work zones as follows:
Personnel not a part of the HAZMAT Response Team will not enter the Hot Zone unless approved by the Incident Commander.
1. Hot Zone (Exclusion Zone) –This is the area where contaminated does or could occur. All personnel entering the Hot Zone must wear the prescribed level of protection. Command must establish entry and exit check points at the periphery of the Hot Zone for control of the flow of personnel and equipment.
The outer boundary of the Hot Zone is called the Hotline. Establish the Hotline by visually surveying the immediate environment of the incident and determining where the hazardous substances involved are located, including drainage. Consider the distances needed to prevent fire or explosion from affecting personnel outside the zone, the physical area necessary to conduct site operations and the potential for contaminants to be blown from the area. Also, consider a change in wind direction.
Physically mark the Hotline with marker tape or some type of visible landmarks.
1 Warm Zone: (Contamination Reduction Zone) –This is a buffer zone between the hazardous area (Hot Zone) and the safe area (Cold Zone). Initially, this area is non-contaminated. The decontamination areas are in this non-contaminated zone. As operations proceed, the area around the decon stations will be contaminated, but to a much lesser degree.
2 Cold Zone (Support Zone) –The Cold Zone, the outermost part of the site, is considered a non-contaminated or clean area. Locate support equipment in the zone and restrict traffic to authorized personnel. Since normal work clothes are appropriate within this zone, potentially contaminated personal clothing, equipment, and samples are not permitted, but left in the Warm Zone until they are decontaminated.
The boundary of the Warm Zone is called the Contamination Control Line. Mark this line by tape or some other physical barrier.
Consider the following criteria when establishing area dimensions and boundaries:
• Physical and topographical features of the site.
• Weather conditions.
• Field/lab measurements of air contaminants and environmental samples.
• Air dispersion calculations.
• Potential for explosion and flying debris.
• Physical, chemical, toxicological, and other characteristics of the substances present.
• Clean-up activities required.
• Decontamination procedures.
• Potential for exposure.
• Proximity to residual or industrial areas.
• Monitoring and sampling
The use of a three-zone system, access control points, and exacting decon procedures provides a reasonable assurance against the translocation of contaminating substances. This site control system is based on a worst-case situation. Command may use less stringent site control and decon procedures if more definitive information is available on the on the types of substances involved and hazards they present. This information can be obtained through air monitoring, instrument survey, sampling, and technical data concerning the characteristics and behavior of materials present.
1 Personnel must use the “buddy system” when wearing respiratory protective equipment. As a minimum, a two-person team, suitably equipped as a safety backup, is required during initial entries.
2 Personnel should remain close together to assist each other during emergencies.
3 Command must designate entrance and exit locations and determine emergency escape routes. Warning signals for evacuation must be established.
4 The initial entry team members must maintain communications using radios, hand signals, signs, and other means always. Pre-arranged emergency communications in case of radio failure, site evacuation, and other reasons.
Of immediate concern to initial entry personnel are atmospheric conditions that could affect their immediate safety. These conditions are airborne toxic substances, combustible gases or vapors, lack of oxygen, and ionizing radiation. Command must establish priorities for monitoring these potential hazards after a careful evaluation of conditions.
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS OPERATIONS GUIDELINES
Decontamination is the physical or chemical process of reducing and spreading of contaminants from persons and equipment used at a hazardous materials incident.
Determining who needs to be decontaminated
Responders should use this guideline in determining the difference between exposure and contamination:
• If you breathe the fumes of a hazardous material, you are exposed and will need medical treatment.
• If you come in contact with a hazardous material, you are contaminated and will need to be decontaminated prior to medical treatment.
Many victims will be complaining of many issues as they exit the contaminated area. Victims at this point will be scared, confused, and disoriented. Responders should try to identify who has been exposed and who has been contaminated.
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS EXPOSURES
If Department members are exposed to hazardous materials in the course of their duties, team members will:
1 Be decontaminated on-scene and treated immediately according to Hamilton-EMS paramedic protocols and those of Baylor Scott and White/Marble Falls.
2 If necessary, the contaminated team member(s) will be transported to a medical facility capable of treating them in an appropriate manner.
3 Command will notify the Fire Chief.
If civilians are contaminated, Department members will coordinate decon, treatment, transport, and patient management of contaminated individuals.
TYPES OF DECONTAMINATION
1 Technical Decon -is the on-scene decontamination of personal and equipment. Technical Decon is set up during pre-entry and becomes the egress and access points to the Hot Zone.
2 Emergency Decon -is the process of immediately removing contaminants from both victims and emergency response personnel forgoing the usual set up of a planned decontamination corridor. This procedure is to remove as much of the product from the victim in order to afford emergency treatment to protect the life of the victim(s). The type of emergency best reflects the manner in which we must consider mass decontamination.
3 Mass Casualty Decon -As stated above, this is an emergency. The process of mass decontamination involves the reduction of or elimination of contamination through decontamination procedures on many victims. This can be as few as 10 victims based available resources.
It is estimated that up to 80% of chemical exposures can be eliminated by clothing removal alone. Clothing removal will be completed to the degree necessary to remove the hazard. The chemical involved will be the key to the responder in making correct decisions regarding decontamination.
Contaminated individuals that decline or refuse to remove clothing should not be coerced to do so, but instead should be showered as soon as practicable and isolated from that have been fully decontaminated. Every consideration should be given towards maintaining the individual’s dignity during decontamination. Once decontaminated, the individual should be immediately given temporary clothing if possible.
Personnel: The Decon solution to be used for contaminated victims will be WATER or SOAP and WATER. No other solution will be used. Equipment: Decon solution for equipment will be determined by the Hazardous Materials Response Team or Command.
WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION INITIAL ACTION AND DECONTAMINATION
Incidents involving Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs) –Incidents where chemical, biological or radioactive agents have been used will require a specific type of response. Area hospitals will be immediately overwhelmed with patients and individuals who self-refer themselves to hospitals because they are experiencing sympathetic reactions associated with a WMD incident.
Llano Emergency Services may respond in the following manner.
1 A level 3 response will be declared by Command on scene of the WMD incident. Command will notify dispatch of additional resources needed.
2 The Llano County Emergency Management should be notified.
3 The Emergency Operations Center will be activated.
4 The HMRT, other Fire Companies and governmental agencies will assist Command on scene in controlling the situation at the scene of the WMD incident.
On Scene Actions at WMD Incidents
1 For large-scale incidents where large numbers of people are contaminated, mass decon operations shall be initiated. First arriving units should approach with caution and be careful not to over-commit. Effective scene management is critical to surviving a WMD incident. Initial companies should make every effort to prevent affected individuals from coming in contact with response personnel. Initial companies should try to direct contaminated individuals to a specific location for decontamination.
2 Initial emergency decontamination of a few individuals may be accomplished by the use of a single hose line. If large numbers of individuals are affective, mass decontamination activities should be initiated.
Mass decontamination may be accomplished through a combination of master streams and hose lines. Apparatus should be arranged to create a pathway in which contaminated individuals travel through before reaching the triage area for patient care determination. The marshalling of large numbers of people will be the key to a successful outcome of a mass decontamination operation. Remember, all decon operations should be established upwind and uphill of the incident location if possible.
*Remember -Decon teams should be wearing protective clothing and positioned upwind and uphill from the scene of the incident.
RESPONSE TO RESIDENTIAL CARBON MONOXIDE ALARMS
The Department will respond to and monitor incidents involving carbon monoxide (CO) and attempt to identify the source.
1 Carbon Monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless and tasteless gas that is deadly. It is a by-product of combustion. Many appliances such as furnaces, kitchen stoves, water heaters, automobiles, etc., can produce Carbon Monoxide. When a faulty device or unusual conditions exist, Carbon Monoxide may be vented into areas where people are present.
2 Carbon Monoxide poisoning may be difficult to diagnose. Its symptoms are similar to that of the flu, which may include headache, nausea, fatigue and dizzy spells for low levels and convulsions, unconsciousness, and death for high levels.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Required When Responding To Carbon Monoxide Detector Alarms
1. Members may wear regular uniform (includes T-shirts, etc.)
2. Wear SCBAs when the CO level is determined to be above 35 parts per million (ppm)
1. Once the fire company arrives on scene, they should first interview the occupant(s) to determine the following:
• If any occupants are or have been feeling ill.
• The number and location of any CO detectors that have been activated.
• The location of combustion equipment/appliances. NOTE: This interview should take place outside of any suspected contaminated areas.
2. After the interview, zero the CO meter in fresh air and comply with all start-up procedures as recommended by the manufacturer of the metering equipment.
3. Take the first reading just inside the doorway to determine initial CO level.
4. If a reading of 35 ppm or greater is detected, the building or effected area shall be evacuated immediately and SCBA shall be utilized during the investigation.
• Personnel shall begin monitoring the lower levels of the building then proceed to the higher levels.
• Be sure to check all areas, especially areas that include utility spaces, kitchens and attached garages.
• Appliance service personnel should be contacted by the occupant to check the proper operation of appliance.
5. If a reading of 9 ppm or less is detected:
• Inform the occupant(s) that our instrument did not detect an elevated level of CO currently.
• Recommend occupant(s) check their CO detector per manufacturer’s recommendations.
• Advise the occupant(s) to reset the CO detector according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
• Inform the occupant(s) that, if the detector reactivates or they feel there may be a problem, to call 911.
6. If a reading above 9 ppm and below 35 ppm is detected:
• Any reading above 9 ppm shall be considered an above normal reading.
• Occupant(s) shall be informed that an elevated level of CO has been detected.
• If it is determined that an appliance is malfunctioning and thereby producing CO, it shall be shut down and the Gas Company shall be notified to respond.
• Once the premises have been ventilated and reduced to a safe level of CO, it may be occupied, at the discretion of the occupant(s).
• Advise the occupant(s) to reset the CO detector according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
• Inform the occupant(s) that, if the detector re-activates or they feel there may be a problem, to call 911.
7. If a reading of 35 ppm or greater is detected follow the same procedure as in Section G. Advise occupants of findings and further actions that may be necessary.
FIRST ARRIVING UNIT
1 Establish Command and scene control as necessary.
2 Ensure that all occupants have been evacuated (if needed). Report primary search complete.
3 Determine if any of the occupants are displaying any signs or symptoms of CO poisoning.
4 If signs/symptoms are present, request EMS, if not already enroute.
5 Begin investigation procedure to identify the source of CO.
The following guideline will be followed in the event an explosive or suspicious device is found at an emergency scene:
• Request additional resources if needed.
• Request appropriate Emergency Management Office to be notified.
• Request appropriate Law Enforcement to be notified.
• Isolate and evacuate the threatened area.
• Be alert for the possibility of secondary explosive devices.
• Request for the closest Hazardous Materials Response Team if a chemical agent is involved.
EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO INCIDENTS INVOLVING CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS
Chemical and Biological Agents
Chemical and biological agents are classes of hazardous materials that are unique to military arsenals and are usually classified as secret or top secret. These agents are difficult to recognize, identify, treat, and are unfamiliar to most emergency responders. These agents can be lethal in small concentrations and can be released on a target or in the environment through relatively unsophisticated methods.
Role of the Emergency Responders
Before response personnel can hope to be effective at the scene of a chemical agent incident, they must be aware of the nature and characteristics of chemical agents. This awareness is essential for self-protection; it also provides the capability to render aid and assistance to those affected.
The most common chemical agents are those chemicals expressly selected and produced because of their ability to cause injury or incapacitation. Chemical warfare agents are generally classified into broad categories based on their intended use.
• Nerve agent
• Blister agent
• Blood agent
• Choking agent
• Irritating agent
Nerve agents are specific organophosphorus compounds that are considered the most dangerous of the chemical warfare agents. Similar physiological effects are produced by carbonates and other organophosphate based pesticides. However, nerve agents are 100-500 times more potent than these other compounds.
Symptoms of exposure may occur within minutes to hours depending on the dose and route of entry into the body.
Symptoms of an Exposure to a Nerve Agent:
• Eyes: Pinpoint pupils, blurred and dimming vision, and pain in and above eyes aggravated by light.
• Skin: Excessive sweating and fine tremors of muscles under the skin.
• Respiratory System: Runny nose and nasal congestion, chest pressure, cough, and difficulty breathing.
• Digestive System: Excessive salivation, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, involuntary urination and defecation.
• Nervous System: Giddiness, anxiety, difficulty in thinking, difficulty in sleeping, and nightmares. Outward Warning Signs of a Nerve Agent Release
• Explosions that dispense liquids, mist, or gases.
• Explosions that seem to only to destroy a package or bomb device.
• Unscheduled and unusual spray being disseminated.
• Abandoned spray devices.
• Numerous dead animals, fish, and birds.
• Lack of insect life.
• Mass casualties without obvious trauma
Common Nerve Agents
• Sarin (GB)
• Soman (GD)
• Tabun (GA)
• V-Agent (VX)
Blister agents are heavy oily liquids. In the pure state, they are colorless and near odorless, but in the impure state they are dark-colored and have odor strongly suggesting mustard, onion, or garlic. Blister agents cause severe burns to the skin, eyes, and tissue in the respiratory tract. If a large are of skin is involved, significant amounts of agent can be absorbed into the bloodstream and cause severe systemic poisoning.
Symptoms of an Exposure to a Blister Agent
• Eyes: Exposure time until symptoms appear -½ to 12 hours. Reddening, congestion, tears, burning and gritty feeling in the eyes. In more severe cases, marked swelling of the eyelids, severe pain and spasm of the eyelids.
• Skin: Exposure time until symptoms appear -1 to 12 hours. Initially mild itching only followed by redness, tenderness, and burning pain in the groin and armpit where the skin is warm and moist.
• Respiratory System: Exposure time until symptoms appear -2 to 12 hours. Burning sensation in the throat and nose, hoarseness, profusely runny nose, severe cough, severe shortness of breath.
• Digestive System: Exposure time until symptoms appear -2 to 3 hours. Abdominal pain, nausea, bloodstained vomiting, and bloody diarrhea.
Outward Warning Signs of a Blister Agent Release
• Explosions that dispense liquids, mists, or gases.
• Explosions that seem only to destroy a package or bomb device.
• Unscheduled and unusual spray being disseminated.
• Abandoned spray devices.
• Mass casualties without obvious trauma.
• Definite pattern of casualties and common symptoms.
• Civilian panic in potential target areas (government buildings, public assemblies, subway system, etc.)
Blood agents produce casualties by interfering with the blood’s ability to transfer oxygen to cells, which can lead to death by asphyxiation. Signs and symptoms of blood agent poisoning include rapid death if exposed to high concentrations. Small concentrations cause respiratory distress, vomiting, diarrhea, vertigo, and headache. Large numbers of casualties displaying these common symptom and report of peach blossom or bitter almond odors indicate a possible blood agent release.
Blood agents are liquid under pressure. The discovery of lecture bottles and gases cylinders is a possible clue to their presence. Most blood agents are derivatives of cyanide compounds. The discovery of packages of cyanide salts and acids that are precursors for blood agents may also be considered clues.
Common Blood Agents
• Hydrogen Cyanide (AC)
• Cyanogens Chloride (CK)
Choking agents produce casualties by severely stressing respiratory system tissues. This distress produces copious fluids, which can result in death by asphyxiation.
Signs and symptoms that choking agents were released include severe irritation of the respiratory tract and eyes, as well as coughing and choking. Reports of a strong chemical odor would be characteristic. Most people recognize chlorine, and phosgene has an odor like newly cut hay.
Common Choking Agents
Irritating agents are also known as riot control agent or tear gas. They cause respiratory distress and copious tearing that incapacitates a victim. These agents are generally not lethal, but under certain conditions, they can act as an asphyxiate.
Another common compound that produces effects similar to tear gas is pepper spray. The active ingredient in pepper spray is capsicum, a natural organic compound extracted from hot peppers. Signs will include casualties complaining of burning and irritation of the eyes and throat. In severe exposure or when direct contact with the liquid occurs, complaints of burning skin as well as well, abdominal pain may also be present. Exposure to these agents is accompanied by tearing, coughing, choking, difficulty breathing, nausea, and vomiting. Additional signs and symptoms may include the following:
• A characteristic peppery odor in the area of the event.
• A characteristic pepper odor on the clothing of person exposed.
• Reports of tear gas-like odor from those exposed.
• Identification of tear gas munitions used by either military or police.
• Identification of discharged personal protection devices.
• Brownish colored stains on objects near the suspected release.
• Dye stain near the site of suspected release.
Common Irritating Agent Name Military Abbreviation
• Chloropicrin none
• MACE CN
• Tear Gas CS
• Capsicum/Pepper Spray none
The use of biological agents by terrorist groups and national extremist has been limited. Biological warfare agents are living organism or materials are derived from them (endotoxins or extoxins) that cause harm to or disease in humans. Biological agents have a latency period of days to weeks between infection and onset of disease, depending on the microorganism.
Biological agents pose a significant threat because their use is even more difficult to recognize than the use of chemical agents. The presence of symptoms may well be confused with a naturally occurring case or outbreak of disease.
Possible Biological Agents
INCIDENT MANAGEMENT FOR CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL AGENT INCIDENTS
Management of the incident is based on three steps
1. Establishing and updating incident priorities:
• Life safety
• Incident stabilization
• Property and environmental conservation
• Investigation of cause and origin
2. Continuing to size up the incident:
• Present situation
• Predicted behavior
3. Establishing and updating incident action plan:
• Strategic goals (what needs to be done)
• Tactical objective (how will it be done)
• Task operations (who and when)
SUSPICIOUS PACKAGE RESPONSE POLICY
Purpose To establish policy guidelines for responding to packages with suspicion of a biological threat.
1 Upon notification of a suspected package, the Department will respond. The complainant should be advised to not touch, handle, or open the suspect item, and to leave the building and await the arrival of public safety officials. The appropriate Law Enforcement agency and the Emergency Management Office should be requested immediately upon being dispatched.
2 Arriving units should secure access to the scene. Any person or persons that were in the immediate area of the suspect item should not be allowed to leave the location until all information and identification has been obtained.
SOPs and PROTOCOLS
AT ALL MEDICAL INCIDENTS SB-VFD First Responder Organization (FRO) and Hamilton EMS Medical SOP’s & PROTOCOLS SHALL BE FOLLOWED (see SOP and Protocol book). When Hamilton EMS Paramedics arrive on scene patient care will be transferred to them and Fire Department personnel shall assist in any way needed if the task does not exceed certification level. Hamilton EMS Paramedics have final authority regarding medical treatment of patients.
MEDICAL OPERATIONS GUIDELINES
The purpose of this procedure is to provide an organizational outline for prevention and control of infectious diseases and the reporting of potential exposures.
PREVENTIVE AND CONTROL MEASURES
Body Substance Isolation (BSI)
Because emergency services personnel are often unable to determine if body substances have the potential to be infectious, all persons should be assumed to have a communicable disease and all of their body substances should be considered infectious. SB-VFD FRO personnel shall use barrier techniques such as personal protective equipment (gloves, masks, gowns, etc.) to prevent contact with blood or other potentially infectious substances.
Personal Protective Equipment and Supplies
Gloves* – Wear disposable, nonporous gloves any time potential exist for contact with blood, body fluids, non-intact skin, and other potentially infectious material. Clean hands with soap and water as soon as possible after removing gloves, even if gloves appear intact. Avoid handling items such as ink pens, steering wheels, portable radios, or clipboards that will later be touched with ungloved hands, when wearing soiled gloves.
Eye Protection* -Use these any time splash contact with the face is possible.
Gown* -Wear when a need exists to protect your clothing from contact with body fluids.
Mask* -Should be worn by the by caregivers or the patient for those infectious agents known to be transmitted by airborne route (i.e., COVID, tuberculosis, chicken pox, measles, etc.). Sufficient information should be obtained to determine if a patient may have active tuberculosis (TB), recent history of TB, HIV infection, fever, recent weight loss or cough. If there is a history suggestive of active TB, caregivers should wear masks compatible with OSHA guidelines. Pocket masks with one-way valves or positive pressure ventilators should be used for artificial respiration whenever possible.
* The use of gowns, masks, eye protection and gloves should be determined based on the level of exposure likely to be encountered.
Incident Scene Decontamination
Company officers should carefully consider all factors before making a decontaminating an incident scene, such as incidents on public property or where a high urgency to decontaminate quickly exists. Some of the factors include crime scene consideration, public or private property, amount of body fluids present, and course of runoff. In most cases, clearance from the Police Department is needed for crime scenes prior to our actions. Typically, 10% bleach in water solution is adequate to disinfect body fluid spills. After absorbing and bagging as much liquid as possible, the residual may be washed away.
Other Protective Measures
• Uniform care -Members whose uniforms or clothing become contaminated with blood or other body fluids should change clothes as soon as possible to prevent cross contamination. Place the dirty uniform in a biohazard bag and launder separately from other clothing using normal laundry cycles and detergent. The use of unusually hot water or bleach is not necessary. Bleach will destroy Nomex and PBI bunker gear.
• Skin care -covering any laceration or other area of non-intact skin with a bandage, even if later with gloves, will significantly decrease the risk of occupational exposure to communicable diseases. Hands should always be washed with soap and water after every patient contact, even if gloved.
EQUIPMENT CARE AND CLEANING
A patient should never be exposed to another patient’s bodily fluids when under the care of the SB-VFD FRO. An effort should be made to remove blood and other contaminants from reusable medical equipment (i.e., backboards, blood pressure cuffs, etc.) after each EMS incident to prevent cross contamination. Those items should be cleaned thoroughly with a 10% bleach solution or by using an equipment disinfectant supplied by Fire Department. Equipment that cannot be cleaned of all visible blood and/or body fluids should be taken out of service and replaced as soon as possible.
EXPOSURE TO INFECTIOUS DISEASE
Purpose: To outline the process for SB-VFD FRO members exposed to the bodily contaminants of a patient in a manner likely to transmit an infectious disease during the performance of their duties.
POLICY Any exposure of departmental personnel to infectious or communicable diseases, hazardous or poisonous materials shall be documented and reported to the FRO leader. Said exposure shall also be reported to the hospital’s receiving centers involved as early as possible to minimize further unnecessary exposures.
Definition of an exposure: An exposure occurs when a patient’s blood or other bodily fluids enter the employee’s body either:
• Percutaneously – through the skin from a blood contaminated needle or a break in the skin (cut, abrasion, healing wound, etc.)
• Mucotaneously – through the mucus membrane by the spraying or splattering of blood or other body fluids into the eye, nose, or mouth.
• Inhalation – through inhalation of particulates or organisms into the lungs.
Examples of non-exposure events:
• Blood on intact skin
• Blood on clothing or equipment
• Being in the same room with an infected person
• Touching an infected person
• Talking to an infected person
Exposures to blood and other body fluids pose a significant risk to the health and safety of EMS providers. These exposures can be a direct result of patient contact, contact with a device containing blood or body fluids used in patient care or indirect contact with a patient’s blood or body fluids. Exposures of any kind must be identified and treated as quickly as possible.
Post-Exposure Incident Procedures
In the event a member is exposed while on duty, it is imperative that the exposed member along with his/her company officer follow the appropriate steps to receive the appropriate care.
1. Immediately cleanse the exposed area.
a. For exposures to non-intact skin or a percutaneous exposure to blood or body fluids, immediately wash the exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. If soap and water is not available, immediately remove as much of the substance as possible and use an antiseptic hand cleaner. Follow with soap and water as soon as possible.
b. For exposures to eyes, nose, or mouth to blood or other body fluids, flush the eyes/nose with water; rinse out the mouth with water.
2. Immediately notify the FRO Leader’s Responsibilities
1. Notify the Chief immediately, if not available, Shift Commander.
2. Assure any necessary forms and incident reports are completed and turned in to the Chief.
3. If necessary, transport member to hospital, per Shift Commander/Chief’s approval/instructions.
4. At the hospital, the member should be seen by a physician or Infection Control Nurse.
5. Follow Current Exposure Protocol.
6. If at all possible, members will be transported to the same facility as the source patient.
7. If patient will not be transported contact a FRO Leader for on-site blood draw.
Inform the crew of exposure.
. o Rinse the site if indicated.
. o Bandage if necessary.
. Follow protocol until decision to transport is made protocol is implemented.
Transport vs No Transport of source.
. o If source is transported, exposed team member should go with source and crew to hospital for treatment.
. If source is airlifted to hospital out of area, coordinate with Llano SO dispatch about notifying receiving facility of need for source draw.
. If source is NOT transported, notify SO for need of JP.
. EMS crew should contact Hamilton EMS supervisor.
. Request OOH exposure kit to be brought to scene if source is NOT transported to Hospital.
. Non-Hamilton EMS personnel should notify their administrator of exposure.
. Obtain key pieces of information for patient/source identification.
. Name, Date of Birth, and Social Security Number/Address.
. Obtain order from responding Justice of the Peace to draw blood from deceased person.
. If JP present on scene, have the JP sign the order found in the exposure kit.
. If the JP is not present but gives verbal permission, inform the JP he will have to come to hospital to sign the order.
. Medic will obtain blood from the source and place the specimens in the bag provided.
. Place identifying information for source with the specimen.
. Transport exposed team member and source material to the hospital.
. Locate Charge Nurse in ER and inform of OOH exposure.
. Check in as patient in ER.
. Provide OOH exposure kit as source patient.
. Make sure point of contact information for exposed team members agency is filled out and included in OOH exposure kit. This information is a necessity for communicating results.
. Follow agency specific exposure protocol.
The purpose of this guideline is to provide an organizational outline for replenishing supplies.
FRO Personnel shall inventory Command Vehicle apparatus EMS supplies during daily apparatus checks to assure proper quantities are present and in proper working order. (NEED SUPPLY LIST)
EMS EQUIPMENT/SUPPLY RESTOCKING
AFTER A CALL WHERE MEDICAL SUPPLIES ARE USED, THE FIRST RESPONDER BAGS ARE TO BE RESTOCKED AND SEALED IMMEDIATELY UPON CONCLUSION OF CALL PRIOR TO BEING CONSIDERED “BACK IN SERVICE”.
FRO personnel are responsible for assuring that EMS supplies are restocked on the Command Vehicle according to one of the following methods.
1. Directly from the ambulance on scene.
2. Fire Station Inventory
3. EMS Make Ready—Submit an order to the SB-VFD FRO Leader for re-ordering.
The purpose of this guideline is to provide an organizational outline for SB-VFD FRP personnel responding to EMS incidents.
FIRE DEPARTMENT RESPONSIBILITIES
Fire Department units arriving on scene shall address and accomplish the following:
1 Assume command of the incident.
2 Assess the situation and adjust assignments accordingly.
3 FRO member will Initiate patient assessment and treatment functions in accordance with established Hamilton EMS SOP’s & protocols and EMS certification levels.
4 Request additional resources as needed.
5 Stabilize any hazardous situation.
6 Tell ambulance personnel about patient’s condition upon their arrival.
7 Assist ambulance personnel with patient treatment and transportation.
8 Provide extrication and rescue as needed.
9 Establish a helicopter-landing zone, when needed.
10 Act as liaison to the Police Department.
11 Initiate incident documentation on the EMS Patient Report.
Every company is expected to perform these basic functions within the limits of their training and capabilities. The Incident Commander has the ongoing responsibility to integrate tasks and functions as required with the available resources, in a manner that benefit’s the patient(s).
ARRIVAL ON SCENE
1. Fire Unit Arriving before the Ambulance
A. Fire Department members shall initiate patient assessment and treatment functions in accordance with established Hamilton EMS Medical SOP’s & protocols and EMS certification levels.
B. Fire Department members should document the patient’s history and treatment provided on the EMS Patient Report.
C. When the ambulance arrives, members shall give the ambulance paramedics a report of the patient’s condition and the treatment provided.
D. The ambulance paramedics may request additional assistance from Fire Department members. The Company Officer should not clear the scene before checking with the ambulance paramedics.
1 Ambulance Arriving before Fire Department Units When the ambulance arrives before the Fire unit, the Fire Officer should ask the ambulance paramedic what assistance is needed. The Fire unit should not clear the scene until cleared by the ambulance paramedic or disregarded by Dispatch.
2 Return of Fire Personnel Riding on Ambulance – Ambulance personnel may request additional assistance from the Incident Commander for a firefighter to accompany the patient to the hospital. The ambulance will return the firefighter back to scene if POV is left on scene or back to the Fire Station (If available to do so.) In the event the ambulance cannot return the firefighter, the Incident Commander will arrange for the firefighter to be picked up.
* A fire apparatus following the ambulance to the hospital WILL NOT follow using emergency lights and siren and will obey all traffic laws.
1 Medical Control at Scene Patient care must be a collaborative effort between Fire and ambulance personnel to ensure every patient is treated in the most appropriate way possible. Ambulance paramedics have final authority regarding medical treatment of individual patients. Fire Department personnel will be responsible for command and logistical support, and overall safety of the incident scene.
2 Fire Control at Scene If a fire or safety hazard exists, the ranking Fire Officer will oversee patient and rescue members’ safety. Delaying access to the patient or patient care may be necessary if the Fire Officer thinks a danger is present. If time permits, the effects of any delay in patient care should be discussed between ambulance and Fire Department personnel.
3 Police Control at Scene If a crime situation or traffic safety hazard exists, the ranking Police Officer will oversee patient and rescue members’ safety.
The Fire Department’s primary role is to safely and rapidly free the patient. Fire Department and ambulance personnel should always confer prior to patient removal so that patient treatment efforts may be coordinated.
MEDICAL OPERATIONS GUIDELINES
The purpose of this guideline is to provide an organizational outline for recovery and identification of bodies at MCIs.
MASS CASUALTY INCIDENTS
Because a mass casualty incident may involve a criminal investigation, personnel entering the mass casualty scene shall consider the possibility of causing the destruction of physical evidence and alteration of the site. Removal of injured persons and treatment shall have the highest priority.
Fire Department personnel involved in rescue operations shall not alter or remove the dead, their body parts, or personal property unless immediate removal is necessary to prevent loss or destruction due to threatening conditions (continued fire, flood, etc.). Premature removal of the dead and/or their personal belongings may result in difficult identification. Personnel shall cover un-threatened deceased persons (or body parts) with a blanket or body bag and notify law enforcement.
If possible, do not allow the public to view body recovery activities.
PPE Use, Care, and Maintenance
To provide a policy and guidelines relative to the proper personal protection, in the form of protective clothing and equipment, to all Fire Department members exposed to dangerous situations, hazardous atmospheres, and/or environments.
A. Fire Department members shall utilize and wear protective clothing, equipment, and safety gear as prescribed by those policies and procedures contained herein.
B. It will be the responsibility of each member to check all elements of their PPE to ensure that all elements are present and operable. All members of the department are responsible for their personal safety by following these guidelines. The Company Officer will ensure that all members adhere to this policy during all applicable events.
C. At no time shall any member wear gear other than that issued or approved by the Department. Periodically the department will trial test equipment and gear from different vendors. This gear will only be approved and issued by the Fire Chief.
Assignment of PPC/PPE
1. Each member of the department assigned duties on the Engines or Brush Trucks shall be issued a complete set of Personal Protective Clothing (PPC) (Also referred to as “Turnouts” or “Bunker Gear.”) to be used as required by this policy. All structural firefighting equipment and clothing will meet NFPA 1971 at time of issuance. This set is to include at least the following items rated for structural firefighting:
b. Pants with suspenders (suspenders are not required by some Manufacturers)
c. Helmet with neck flap and face shield/ goggles.
1. Each member of the department shall be issued at least the following items which will be considered mandatory parts of the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for firefighting activities as required by this policy.
a. Accountability Tags as required by SOG
2. Other general items:
a. Latex Gloves for medical responses shall be carried in a variety of common sizes on all department apparatus.
b. Members requiring small size gloves may wish to maintain a box with their personal gear to assure availability in the event of a temporary station or apparatus transfer.
c. Non-Latex gloves for members having an allergy will be supplied as needed. Members with a latex allergy should contact the Chief.
d. Non-Latex gloves for patients having an allergy will be carried in a variety of sized on all the command truck.
3. Each PPE element issued will be recorded as required by NFPA 1851 to include the following:
a. Person to whom element was issued
b. Date and condition at issue
c. Manufacturer and model name and design
d. Manufacturers identification, lot, or serial number
e. Month and year of manufacture
f. Date and findings of advanced inspection if member is being issued old gear or new gear over 3 years old
g. Size of coat and pants
Storage and Transport of PPE/PPC
A. To minimize the public’s and fire department personnel’s exposure to soiled or contaminated equipment, the following will apply:
1 PPE/PPC will not be worn or stored in the living areas within the Department
2 The public shall not wear or be exposed to soiled or contaminated PPE/PPC, except during emergency operations
3 Soiled or contaminated equipment shall not be transported in passenger compartments of personal vehicles or kept at private residences.
4 Only dedicated PPE/PPC can be used for public education or “show and tell” events with the public.
Use of PPE/PPC
A. Additional requirements may be designated in other sections of the SOG, under the procedures for specific emergency incidents.
1 Any members working in any capacity in a commercial or industrial setting should, at a minimum, match their level of protective equipment and/or clothing to that worn by the regular employees of that area.
2 This shall include use of eye protection, hearing protection, helmets, etc. depending on the regular level of protection required in the plant.
3 This requirement applies to emergency response activities as well as non-emergency activities such as company inspections, tours, etc.
4 Personal Protective Clothing shall be worn in a manner that will fully utilize the protection afforded by all components. This includes having all closures properly fastened, all straps secure (including helmet chin strap), face shield down (unless other eye protection or SCBA is worn) and ear flaps down, collar and throat flap up and secured. PPC including Pants, Boots, and Coat should be donned prior to response to allow members to wear seatbelts while the apparatus is in motion. The balance of the full PPC ensemble may be donned and fastened enroute and should be worn during response to incidents reported or dispatched as:
B. Fires of any kind including:
1 Structure fires
2 Vehicle fires
3 Dumpster fires
4 Grass / woods fires
C. Gas leaks and gas odors
D. Smoke inside a building (including commercial and residential)
E. Fire alarms (except trouble alarms)
F. Motor vehicle accidents including:
1 Auto accidents
2 Train derailments
3 Plane crashes
4 Hot air balloon incidents
G. Rescue incidents including:
1 Jaws calls
2 Rescue above grade
3 Rescue below grade
4 Building collapse
H. Industrial accidents Hazardous materials incidents
Equipment Operators who are operating their pumps on the fire ground shall don PPC after placing the initial lines in service unless such delay causes exposure to unsafe conditions, in which case the PPC and SCBA should be donned as soon as possible to minimize exposure to toxic gases.
K. Reduced Levels: A reduction in protection level must be weighed against the potential for injury from the incident hazards. The need for rehabilitation, reduction of heat stress, and minimization of fatigue may be considered when designating a level of protection less than full protection. Use of less than full protective equipment or clothing may only be designated by the on-scene incident commander or safety officer in the following situations:
1 Motor vehicle accidents without fire or fuel leaks
2 Technical / rope / and ladder rescue not at a fire scene
3 Carbon monoxide alarm investigation when monitoring detects levels that are at or below 35 parts per million as per NIOSH 1992
4 Fires that have been extinguished, ventilated, and tested for safe carbon monoxide levels (at or below 35 parts per million as per NIOSH 1992).
5 Hazardous materials incidents when the Hot Zone (and/or warm zones) and proper protective levels have been defined by the incident commander.
6 Grass fires where the only fuel involves low level grasses and very small brush.
7 Other major incidents where the action zone has been clearly defined and personnel are operating solely outside that zone. (i.e.: rehab sector or command post)
L. Fire/Rescue Incidents
1. PPE/PPC for fire and rescue incidents should be donned or worn during response to allow members to begin emergency work as soon as possible after arrival on the scene
2. PPE for fire incidents of any type will consist of full PPC plus flashlight and SCBA including:
i. Structure Fires
ii. Vehicle fires
iii. Dumpster / Trash fires
Explosions and potentially explosive conditions
Gas leaks and gas odors
vi. Smoke inside a building (including commercial and residential)
vii. Fire alarms (except trouble alarms)
3. PPC plus flashlight shall be worn by all members working in or around other dangerous situations including, but not limited to:
i. Grass / woods fires
4. Motor vehicle accidents including:
i. Auto accidents
ii. Train derailments
iii. Aircraft crashes
5. Rescue incidents including:
i. Jaws calls
ii. Rescue above or below grade
iii. Building collapse
iv. Hot air balloon incidents
6. Industrial accidents
M. Medical Incidents
1. PPE for medical incidents shall be worn by all members working in or around situations which may result in exposure or contact with blood or OPIM. These situations include, but are not limited to:
i. Priority 1, 2 or 3 medical incidents
ii. Rescue Incidents not otherwise requiring firefighters PPC
iii. Motor Vehicle Accidents not otherwise requiring firefighters PPC
Rescue Incidents not otherwise requiring firefighters PPC
Industrial Accidents not otherwise requiring firefighters PPC
vi. Post incident cleanup and equipment checks
2. Minimum PPE for medical incidents not otherwise requiring use of a higher level of protection shall include at least:
i. Latex Gloves. Gloves will be worn for all patient contact and contact with any blood, body fluids, sharps, contaminated linens, or OPIM including during cleanup activities for any equipment or surfaces potentially contaminated.
1 Hands should be washed (or sanitized with alcohol gel when water is not available) immediately after removing gloves.
2 Non-Latex medical exam gloves may be substituted for any member or patient having a known or suspected latex allergy.
ii. Eye protection. Protective eyewear shall be donned during response or immediately on arrival at the scene of any incident and prior to any patient contact.
3. Depending on the circumstances and procedures used, medical incidents may also require the use of:
i. Tight fitting respirator N95 standards or higher
ii. Splash protection including impermeable gowns, masks, and face shields shall be worn for any procedures that are likely to generate droplets or splashes of body fluids. These include, but are not limited to:
1 Endotracheal Intubation
2 Chest (Plural) decompression
3 Tracheal suctioning
4 Child Birth
N. Training Situations Use of PPE/PPC during scheduled training exercises will be at the direction of the training officer in charge based on the anticipated conditions during the exercise.
O. SCBA Usage The intent of this policy is to avoid any respiratory contact with dangerous products of combustion, super-heated gases, toxic chemicals, or other hazardous contaminants. Note: In any situation defined as requiring mandatory use of SCBA members are also required to work in teams of at least two members maintaining voice or visual communications with each other, and with two members outside the IDLH atmosphere to perform rescue if needed.
1. Mandatory Use: SCBA and PASS devices shall be worn with the face-piece in place, using air cylinder, by all members working in situations where respiratory protection is required. Such situations include, but are not limited to:
a. Inside a structure or other area where a contaminated atmosphere is known to exist.
b. Outdoor incidents known to produce toxic smoke and/or gasses. This includes, but is not limited to:
• Structure Fires
• Vehicle Fires
• Dumpster Fires
• Hazardous Materials Incidents
• In any area where products of combustion are visible in the air at the level at which members are working.
• c. In any oxygen deficient atmosphere (02 < 19.5% by volume)
• d. In any area that may be subject to explosion (including gas leaks and fuel spills) or sudden contamination from any source
• e. On the roof or any floor above a structure fire
• f. Any atmosphere where carbon monoxide levels exceed 35 parts per million as defined by NIOSH 1992.
• g. Any other area defined as IDLH by OSHA.
• h. In any confined space where testing to determine respiratory safety has not been conducted.
• i. Any other situation where a contaminated or oxygen deficient atmosphere is known or suspected.
2. Standby Use: The SCBA may be carried or worn without the mask in place and without using the stored air by all members operating in situations where none of the mandatory criteria are present, but where one of those conditions might quickly develop. This includes, but is not limited to:
i. Operations outside the designated hot zone at a fire or other incident
ii. Operations at a fire incident at the level of the fire or in areas below the level of the fire provided no visible contamination is present.
iii. Fire alarm investigations where no smoke is visible.
3. PASS Device: All SCBA will be equipped with a PASS device integrated into the unit to activate automatically when the air cylinder is opened.
1. The PASS device shall be activated any time an SCBA is in use, either in the situations defined for mandatory use or for standby use.
P. Reflective Vests All Members are to use an approved reflective vest to increase visibility when operating in areas of motor vehicle traffic or other scenes in which the Incident Commander deems high visibility a necessity.
1. Reflective vest will be used in the following situations:
i. Areas of motor vehicle operations such as streets, highways and large parking areas.
ii. Any operation where the incident commander deems the reflective vests is necessary for personnel safety.
1 Bunker Coats will be an acceptable alternative during these same incidents.
2 Vest or Bunker Coats will be worn until the incident is complete and personnel have returned to their vehicle.
Care / Maintenance of PPC/PPE
A. PPC It will be the responsibility of each member to ensure the PPE ensemble is complete and maintained. The PPE should routinely be check for the following:
1 Contamination of cleanliness
2 Physical damage
3 Thermal damage
4 Closure system damage
5 Loss of seam integrity
6 Exposed or deformed steel toe, steel midsole, or shank damage to boots
B. Any problems found will be immediately reported to the supply officer and equipment deemed unsafe shall be taken out of service immediately. This equipment should be replaced and inspected by your Lieutenant.
C. Accountability tags shall be placed as required by current accountability SOG.
D. All inspections repair or outside cleaning service shall be completed by a company or individual who is a certified ISP (Independent Service Provider) for that brand of garment or protective equipment. All ISP certificates will be kept on file at Fire Administration. All repairs shall comply with NFPA 1971 and 1851.
All PPE repairs will be logged into Fire House with date, what was repaired and who completed the repair.
E. Cleaning Procedures
1. Coats & Pants
a. Routine cleaning of the bunker coat and pants should be performed whenever the gear is visibly soiled or contaminated from a fire or other scene. The gear should be rinsed with clean water as soon as practical to remove any gross contamination.
b. Advanced cleaning of the gear should be performed when the gear is contaminated including:
c. ASAP after interior fire ground operations
d. Whenever materials are ground into the fabric
e. Whenever fabric is contaminated with blood or OPIM
f. Whenever fabric is contaminated with hydrocarbons or other chemicals
g. Advanced cleaning involves laundering the gear in a machine with an approved detergent solution, rinsing with clean water, and thoroughly air drying the fabric.
h. Advanced washing procedures are defined in our SOG
2. General rules of laundering are:
1 Never use chlorine bleach on bunker gear
2 Outer shell shall always be washed separately
3 Remove the thermal liner(s) and wash separately, turned inside out
4 Always fasten all hook and loop “Velcro” fasteners before washing
5 Always inspect gear for mechanical damage after laundering
6 Always record each laundering of gear on the monthly bunker gear inspection form. All gear shall be washed one time per 12 months.
a. Clean with coat & pant liners
a. Clean as recommended by the manufacturer.
a. Routine cleaning of the gloves should be performed whenever they are visibly soiled or contaminated from a fire or other incident. Gloves can be hand washed with a mild soap and rinsed thoroughly. Gloves should be air dried.
b. Clean gloves with coat & pant outer shell.
• Clean with water and a plastic bristle brush as needed.
• Clean with water and a plastic bristle brush as needed, maintain waterproofing and appearance as recommended by manufacturer.
F. It shall be each member’s responsibility to inspect their routinely depending on the number of calls responded to. All gear should be complete and in good working condition as outlined in this SOG. The member is responsible to report any damage or concerns to the Supply Officer. If the equipment is deemed unsafe, then the Chief should be notified immediately for replacement equipment. No member will participate in emergency operations without a completer PPE ensemble or with any gear that will not pass all protection criteria.
G. Monthly Inspection
1 The complete PPC/PPE ensemble of each member assigned to a station shall be checked for cleanliness, condition, and function monthly.
2 Document this check, and any laundering, on the form “Personal Protective Clothing Monthly Inspection” (NOT SOMETHING WE HAVE IN PLACE)
3 Submit completed forms to the Chief with the daily departmental mail or the electronic format no later than the first Monday of following month. (NOT SOMETHING WE HAVE IN PLACE)
4 These records shall be maintained on file by Fire Administration for a period of five years. (NOT SOMETHING WE HAVE IN PLACE)
H. Annual Inspection
1. The complete PPC/PPE ensemble of each member shall be checked for condition, and function by a certified inspector at least once a year. This inspector must have completed training by the gear manufacturer prior to completing any inspection. This documentation of training will be kept on file at fire administration.
2. Gloves and Hoods shall be deemed disposable and replaced as needed.
3. All gear three (3) years past manufacturing date that is being issued from stock (new or used) will receive a complete annual inspection prior to being placed in service. This annual inspection will be documented in the same way as routine annual inspections.
4. Documentation of this check shall be on the “Annual Bunker Gear Inspection” form, and will be retained in Fire Administration for a period of five years. (NOT SOMETHING WE HAVE IN PLACE)
5. The annual inspection will include routine inspection criteria and:
a. System fit/overlap of 2″ minimum
b. Material integrity, including wristlets
c. Moisture barrier integrity in knees, crouch, armpits, and back.
d. Label integrity
e. Complete enclosure functionality and completeness; zipper and Velcro
f. Liner attachment systems
h. Light evaluation of liner
i. Alcohol leak test using a 6-1 water and alcohol ratio. Using assigned field areas and three seam areas.
j. Liners shall receive a hydrostatic test on the third year after manufacture and every year after this
k. Moisture and thermal barriers shall be inspected for physical damage, loss of seam strength, material strength, or delamination
I. Retirement of PPE Ensemble elements that are worn, damaged, or contaminated to the extent that the department deems it impossible or cost prohibitive to repair, shall be retired. All ensembles will be retired after 10 years from the date of manufacture. Retired gear shall be marked OOS (out of service), bagged, and disposed of in the landfill, to ensure that no such gear is used in firefighting or fire training exercises. This date of gear retirement will be documented. Some OOS gear may be retained for training or show and tale, but it shall never be used in any live fire training. No gear shall be donated to any agency that will not pass annual testing.
J. Washing Procedures for Bunker Gear
1. All advanced cleaning of bunker gear shall be completed by department personnel in approved extractors only. No gear will be washed in residential style washing machines or any private washing machines.
2. Gear shall be washed a minimum one (1) time per year and/or whenever gear is deeply soiled with hydrocarbons, oils, fuels, soot, or any contaminant that impedes the gear’s protective characteristics.
3. Though it is impossible to remove all stains or spots from protective equipment, a good indicator is smell.
4. The gear shall be washed until the contaminants natural smell is removed. This may require multiple washings for items such as oils and diesel fuel.
5. At no time will gear contaminated with a CBRN (Chemical, Biological, or Radioactive) agent be cleaned, additionally, any gear suspected of having a hazardous material should not leave a scene prior to confirming the potential of hazardous contamination.
6. Gear soiled with a CBRN agent or a hazardous material will be disposed of in an approved manor.
7. It is imperative that gear be washed in a specific way to maintain the integrity of the gear, and more specifically, the garment life span. All personnel shall follow these guidelines when washing your gear:
1. All personnel handling contaminated protective clothing for the wash should wear latex gloves.
2. All pockets and compartments shall be emptied of all material or equipment, no exceptions.
3. Decontamination of blood or body fluids. Place the complete garment in washer, do not separate and select wash cycle number 3 before proceeding.
4. Garments should be completely separated, outer shell and inner liners, DRD. The Garments shall be washed separately. The DRD shall be place in the mesh laundry wash bag and washed with liners. At no time shall an outer shell and inner liner be washed at the same time.
5. After separation; the outer shell shall be left right side out and completely fastened, zipped up and Velcro fastened together, the inner liner shall be turned inside out and Velcro fastened together. The gear is now ready for the extractor.
6. Grossly contaminated outer shells should be pre-soaked in chemical solution for 60 minutes prior to washing (this is the length of time to wash the inner liner). Gross contamination may include oils, fuels, tar, etc.
7. Place garment or garments in the extractor and enter the appropriate wash cycle code. At no time shall additional cleaning solution be added to the wash cycle. Washing protective equipment requires a detergent with a pH between 6 and 10.5, and no bleach product shall be used.
8. The maximum load for the extractor is 6 pieces and minimum of 3 pieces for both outer shell and inner liner.
9. For inner liners, select wash cycle number 4 and outer shells select wash cycle number 5. The cycles will take approximately 60 minutes each to complete.
10. Garments shall immediately be removed and hung on hangers with all parts remaining fastened. Garments shall be allowed to air dry only; a bay fan may be used to assist drying.
11. Upon reassembly of equipment, check garment for damage and ensure that the inner, outer liners and DRD are correctly paired.
12. The individual assigned to the PPE in need of maintenance is responsible to enter all washings (or other maintenance details) in Fire House (Inventory; Maintenance/Test) using the garment serial number. The Company Officer is required to enter this on the Monthly PPE inspection form, on the same month of the washing.
13. The person to whom the gear is assigned is responsible to ensure that their gear is always in an acceptable working condition.
Social Media Policy
The Sunrise Beach Volunteer Fire Department recognizes the role that social media plays in the personal lives of some members. As such, this policy provides guidance of a precautionary nature, and restrictions and prohibitions on the use of social media by members of the Department, whether on or off duty, and regardless of the ownership of the device with which the information is being captured and/or shared.
The Department endorses the use of social media to enhance communication, collaboration, and information exchange; streamline processes; foster productivity; and inform our citizens and supporters. This policy establishes the Department’s position on the use and management of social media. This policy is not meant to address one form of social media but rather social media in general. This policy is not meant to inhibit the First Amendment rights of any member of the Department acting as a private citizen in accordance with the applicable state and federal court decisions.
Social media provides a new and valuable means of assisting the Department and its members in meeting community outreach, problem-solving, investigation, recruitment, fire prevention, and related organizational and community objectives.
The environment of social media is constantly changing as new technology and uses are developed. This policy is meant to include, but not be limited to, any social media interaction, such as “Post,” “Profile,” “Comment,” etc., and does not exclude any future social media interactions/terminology that may not yet be defined.
Social media that is not department sanctioned is considered personal use, and everyone is personally responsible – and potentially liable – for whatever is posted.
- Violation of this social media policy may result in disciplinary action, up to and including termination or indefinite suspension.
- Personal Use of Social Media
- Members are cautioned that speech on or off duty, made pursuant to their official duties—that is, that owes its existence to the members fire department related duties and responsibilities—may not necessarily be protected speech under the First Amendment and may form the basis for discipline if deemed detrimental to the Department. Members should assume that their speech and related activity on social media will reflect upon the Department and their position within the Department.
- Members are not restricted from using social media as private citizens or for personal matters, so long as their use does not impair working relationships of the Department for which loyalty and confidentiality are important, impede the performance of duties, or impair discipline and harmony among coworkers. The goal is to avoid negatively affecting the public perception of the Department.
- Members should not make any statements, speeches, appearances, or endorsements that could reasonably be considered to represent the views or positions of the Department without express authorization in consultation with the Fire Chief.
- Members may not post, transmit, or disseminate any photographs, video or other recordings obtained or accessible because of membership with the Department without the express authorization of the Fire Chief or designee.
- Authorized Department Use of Social Media
- Authorized Department social media sites or pages shall be approved in advance by the Fire Chief or designee.
- Content managers for authorized Department social media sites or pages shall provide all authorization information (usernames and passwords) to the Department’s Public Information Office, and the PIO must be named an administrator.
- Social media pages shall clearly indicate they are maintained by the Department and shall have Department contact information prominently displayed.
- Department social media pages will include information determined by the Fire Chief to be relevant and necessary, but at a minimum should include:
- An introductory statement that clearly specifies the purpose and scope of the Department’s presence on the website.
- Information that is designed for the target audience(s) such as the community, civil leadership, members, and/or potential job candidates.
- Department social media pages should state that the opinions expressed by visitors to the page(s) do not reflect the opinions of the Sunrise Beach Volunteer Fire Department.
- Pages shall clearly indicate that posted comments will be monitored and that the Department reserves the right to remove obscenities, off-topic comments, personal attacks or any other comments as they see fit.
- Pages shall clearly indicate that any content posted or submitted for posting is subject to public disclosure.
- Under no circumstances will photo images, video, or audio of any patients or their identifiers be posted online without their permission.
- Department personnel representing the Department via social media outlets (regardless of whether those outlets are personal or Department accounts) will be held responsible and accountable, and shall do the following:
- Always conduct themselves as representatives of the Department and, accordingly, shall adhere to all Department standards of conduct and observe conventionally accepted protocols and proper decorum.
- Identify themselves as a member of the Department.
- Not make statements or comments concerning pending Sunrise Beach Volunteer Fire Department legal matters, nor post, transmit, or otherwise disseminate confidential information.
- Not conduct political activities or private business.
- Additionally, Department personnel who serve in the PIO function have special access to Department social media accounts, and they will be held accountable and responsible for anything they post on those accounts, whether they are acting in the PIO role at that time.
- Divisions of the Department who wish to establish a social media presence must submit a formal request to the Fire Chief and Communications Officer outlining the type of account requested, its expected use, administrators, etc. Accounts may not be created in advance of the following process being completed first:
- The Department’s Public Information Office will submit the request to the Fire Chief for approval.
- Once approved, the Department’s Public Information Office and Communications Officer will work with the member to create the account, and ensure it meets all relevant standards and contains all required information.
- The Department’s Public Information Officer will work hand in hand with the member to ensure the site remains appropriate, timely, and positively reflects the Department’s mission and brand.
- The Communications Officer must have manager/administrator status to all accounts, as well as all usernames and passwords.
- If at any time content is deemed to not meet these standards, the Department’s Public Information Officer and Communications Officer reserves the right to remove the content immediately.
Fire Fighter I required skills to be trained
Properly don and wear required PPE for structure fires and/or wildland fires. PPE for structure fires requires as a minimum steel toed fire boots, bunker pants, bunker jacket, nomex hood, firefighting gloves, and helmet with face shield. Additional equipment suggested is a flashlight and a pair of wire cutters. See next task for incorporation of SCBA.
Use self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during emergency operations, given SCBA and other PPE, so that the SCBA is correctly donned, the SCBA is correctly worn, control‐ led breathing techniques are used, emergency procedures are enacted if the SCBA fails, all low-air warnings are recognized, respiratory protection is not intentionally compromised, and hazardous areas are exited prior to air depletion.
Respond on apparatus to an emergency scene, given personal protective clothing and other necessary PPE, so that the apparatus is correctly mounted and dismounted, seat belts are used while the vehicle is in motion, and other personal protective equipment is correctly used.
Establish and operate in work areas at emergency scenes, given protective equipment, traffic and scene control devices, structure re and roadway emergency scenes, traffic hazards and downed electrical wires, photovoltaic power systems, battery storage systems, an assignment, and SOPs, so that procedures are followed, protective equipment is worn, protected work areas are established as directed using traffic and scene control devices, and the fire fighter performs assigned tasks only in established, protected work areas.
Force entry into a structure, given PPE, tools, and an assignment, so that the tools are used as designed, the barrier is removed, and the opening is in a safe condition and ready for entry.
Exit a hazardous area as a team, given vision-obscured conditions, so that a safe haven is found before exhausting the air supply, others are not endangered, and the team integrity is maintained.
Set up, mount, ascend, dismount, and descend ground ladders, given single and extension ladders, an assignment, and team members if needed, so that hazards are assessed, the ladder is stable, the angle is correct for climbing, extension ladders are extended to the necessary height with the fly locked, the top is placed against a reliable structural component and the assignment is accomplished.
Attack a passenger vehicle fire operating as a member of a team, given PPE, an attack line, and hand tools, so that hazards are avoided, leaking flammable liquids are identified and controlled, protection from flash fires is maintained, all vehicle compartments are overhauled, and the fire is extinguished.
Extinguish fires in exterior Class A materials, given fires in stacked or piled and small unattached structures or storage containers that can be fought from the exterior, attack lines, hand tools and master stream devices, and an assignment, so that exposures are protected, the spread of fire is stopped, collapse hazards are avoided, water application is effective, the fire is extinguished, and signs of the origin area(s) and arson are preserved.
Conduct a search and rescue in a structure operating as a member of a team, given an assignment, obscured vision conditions, personal protective equipment, a flashlight, forcible entry tools, hose lines, and ladders when necessary, so that ladders are correctly placed when used, all assigned areas are searched, all victims are located and removed, team integrity is maintained, and team members’ safety — including respiratory — protection is not compromised.
Attack an interior structure fire operating as a member of a team, given an attack line, ladders when needed, personal protective equipment, tools, and an assignment, so that team integrity is maintained, the attack line is deployed for advancement, ladders are correctly placed when used, access is gained into the fire area, effective water application practices are used, the fire is approached correctly, attack techniques facilitate suppression given the level of the fire, hidden fires are located and controlled, the correct body posture is maintained, hazards are recognized and managed and the fire is brought under control.
Perform horizontal ventilation on a structure operating as part of a team, given an assignment, PPE, ventilation tools, equipment, and ladders, so that the ventilation openings are free of obstructions, tools are used as designed, ladders are correctly placed, ventilation devices are correctly placed, and the structure is cleared of smoke. (WE MUST COLLECTIVELY DECIDE IF THIS IS SOMETHING WE WILL ATTEMPT)
Perform vertical ventilation on a structure as part of a team, given an assignment, PPE, ground and roof ladders, and tools, so that ladders are positioned for ventilation, a specified opening is created, all ventilation barriers are removed, structural integrity is not compromised, products of combustion are released from the structure, and the team retreats from the area when ventilation is accomplished. (WE MUST COLLECTIVELY DECIDE IF THIS IS SOMETHING WE WILL ATTEMPT)
Overhaul a fire scene, given PPE, an attack line, hand tools, a flashlight, and an assignment, so that structural integrity is not compromised, all hidden fires are discovered, fire cause evidence is preserved, and the fire is extinguished.
Conserve property as a member of a team, given salvage tools and equipment and an assignment, so that the building and its contents are protected from further damage.
Connect a fire department pumper to a water supply as a member of a team, given supply or intake hose, hose tools, and a fire hydrant or static water source, so that connections are tight and water ow is unobstructed. (ONLY IN KINGSLAND)
Extinguish incipient Class A, Class B, and Class C fires, given a selection of portable fire extinguishers, so that the correct extinguisher is chosen, the fire is completely extinguished, and correct extinguisher-handling techniques are followed.
Operate emergency scene lighting, given fire service lighting equipment, power supply, and an assignment, so that emergency scene lighting equipment is operated within the manufacturer’s listed safety precautions.
Turn off building utilities, given tools and an assignment, so that the assignment is safely completed.
Combat a ground cover fire operating as a member of a team, given protective clothing, SCBA (if needed), hose lines, extinguishers or hand tools, and an assignment, so that threats to property are reported, threats to personal safety are recognized, retreat is quickly accomplished when warranted, and the assignment is completed.
Tie a knot appropriate for hoisting tools, given PPE, tools, ropes, and an assignment, so that the knots used are appropriate for hoisting tools securely and as directed.
Operate an air-monitoring instrument, given an air monitor and an assignment or task, so that the device is operated, and the fire fighter recognizes the high- or low-level alarms of the air monitor and takes action to mitigate the hazard.
Fire Fighter II required skills to be trained
For qualification at Level II, the Fire Fighter II shall meet the general knowledge requirements in Fire Fighter I Skills , plus those below. And knowledge of the Incident Management System sections of ICS 200 as described. Fire Fighter II general skill requirements are the ability to determine the need for command, organize and coordinate an incident management system until command is transferred, and function within an assigned role in an incident management system.
COURSES TO BE STUDIED INDIVIDUALLY AND ONLINE – EACH MEMBER GET A CERTIFICATE
The required tasks to be accomplished are:
Complete a basic incident report, given the report forms, guidelines, and information, so that all pertinent information is recorded, the information is accurate, and the report is complete.
Communicate the need for team assistance, given fire department communications equipment, SOPs, and a team, so that the supervisor is consistently informed of team needs, departmental SOPs are followed, and the assignment is accomplished safely.
Extinguish an ignitable liquid fire, operating as a member of a team, given an assignment, an attack line, PPE, a foam proportioning device, a nozzle, foam concentrates, and a water supply, so that the correct type of foam concentrate is selected for the given fuel and conditions, a properly proportioned foam stream is applied to the surface of the fuel to create and maintain a foam blanket, fire is extinguished, reignition is prevented, team protection is maintained with a foam stream, and the hazard is faced until retreat to safe haven is reached.
Coordinate an interior attack line for a team’s accomplishment of an assignment in a structure fire, given attack lines, personnel, PPE, and tools, so that crew integrity is established; attack techniques are selected for the given level of the fire (e.g., attic, grade level, upper levels, or basement); attack techniques are communicated to the attack teams; constant team coordination is maintained; fire growth and development is continuously evaluated; search, rescue, and ventilation requirements are communicated or managed; hazards are reported to the attack teams; and incident command is apprised of changing conditions.
Control a flammable gas cylinder fire, operating as a member of a team, given an assignment, a cylinder outside of a structure, an attack line, PPE, and tools, so that crew integrity is maintained, contents are identified, safe havens are identified prior to advancing, open valves are closed, flames are not extinguished unless the leaking gas is eliminated, the cylinder is cooled, cylinder integrity is evaluated, hazardous conditions are recognized and acted upon, and the cylinder is faced during approach and retreat.
Protect evidence of fire cause and origin, given a flashlight and overhaul tools, so that the evidence is noted and protected from further disturbance until investigators can arrive on the scene.
Extricate a victim entrapped in a motor vehicle as part of a team, given stabilization and extrication tools, so that the vehicle is stabilized, the victim is disentangled without further injury, and hazards are managed.
Assist rescue operation teams, given standard operating procedures, necessary rescue equipment, and an assignment, so that procedures are followed, rescue items are recognized and retrieved in the time as prescribed by SB-VFD SOGs, and the assignment is completed.
Perform a fire safety survey in an occupied structure, given survey forms and procedures, so that fire and life safety hazards are identified, recommendations for their correction are made to the occupant, and unresolved issues are referred to the proper authority. LIMITED REQUIREMENT
Present fire safety information to station visitors or small groups, given prepared materials, so that all information is presented, the information is accurate, and questions are answered or referred. LIMITED REQUIREMENT
Prepare a pre-incident survey, given forms, necessary tools, and an assignment, so that all required occupancy information is recorded, items of concern are noted, and accurate sketches or diagrams are prepared. LIMITED REQUIREMENT
Maintain power plants, power tools, and lighting equipment, given tools and manufacturers’ instructions, so that equipment is clean and maintained according to manufacturer and departmental guidelines, maintenance is recorded, and equipment is placed in a ready state or reported otherwise.
Perform an annual service test on fire hose, given a pump, a marking device, pressure gauges, a timer, record sheets, and related equipment, so that procedures are followed, the condition of the hose is evaluated, any damaged hose is removed from service, and the results are recorded.
OTHER SKILLS/TASKS TO BE MASTERED
- Draft from water drop tank or from stock tank using pumps installed on Brush truck or Engine as required.
- Operate as a team in a wildland fire scenario.
- Operate radios effectively. Change channels when directed. Change zones to match required on-scene communications with other responding departments.
- Perform pump operations in the absence of designated pump operators on both Brush Trucks and Engines.
- Operate Brush Trucks in off-road conditions. Know how to engage 4-wheel drive and how to disengage 4-wheel drive upon completion of mission.
- Operate Engines in an emergency scenario obeying all traffic laws, safely maneuvering through intersections, maintaining control of vehicle, and properly positioning Engine in accordance with the instructions from Command or (if first on scene) in the best position to engage the danger and provide for exit from the event.
- Understand the principles of Traffic Incident Management and the safety actions necessary to protect First Responders at a motor vehicle collision with injuries (especially on Highway 71 and RM 2233 and RM 2900)
Appendix B – Hamilton County EMS Protocols